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something that conducts thermal energy well (thermal) or which charges move easily through (electrical)


something that does NOT conduct thermal energy well (thermal) or that charge deos not move easily through (electrical)


the transfer of thermal energy by the movement of a liquid or a gas


the transfer of energy through matter of space as electromagnetic waves

specific heat capacity

the amount of enery needed to change the temperature of 1 kg or a substance by 1 degree celsius

states of matter

the physical forms in which a substance can exist: like a sold, liquid, gas and plasma.

change of state

the conversion of a substance from one physical form to another


a substance that reduces the transfer of thermal energy

heat engine

a machine that uses heat to do work

thermal pollution

the excessive heating of a body of water

thermal energy

the total energy of the particles that make up an object


the transfer of energy between objects that are at different temperatures

absolute zero

the lowest possible temperature

thermal expansion

the increase in volume of a substance due to an increase in temperature


a measure of how hot or cold something is


a method of charging an object when electrons are transferred from one object to another by direct contact (electric) or the transfer of thermal energy from one substance to another through direct contact (thermal)

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