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Research Quiz #5
Terms in this set (15)
What is the primary difference between experimental and nonexperimental research designs?
Experimental research designs manipulate one or more factors that they are going to manipulate
Nonexperimental research designs investigate existing conditions without manipulating them
obtain a participant's response to questions
determine the relationship between two variables
case control study
compare persons with or without disorders
study a single person, situation, or organization
Are case studies an example of qualitative or quantitative research? Explain your answer.
Case studies are usually thought of as qualitative, however they can be quantitative or both. For example, they can conduct research through testing and receive numerical scores (quantitative) and receive data from interviews of the clients/family members (qualitative).
Do researchers conduct correlation studies to establish a cause and effect relationship between two variables? Explain your answer.
Unfortunately, correlation studies cannot establish any causality between variables because it cannot show if one variable causes another. It can only show if there is some kind of relationship between the variables.
Explain how researchers test their participants when conducting a prediction study.
Researchers follow their participants over time to conduct a prediction study. They decide how long they will be following the participants and how many measures they want to compare over time. They have to have at least one predictor and one dependent measure.
What kind of study is the best alternative for identifying potential cause and effect relationships when conducting a true experiment is not practical?
a causal comparative study
Identify the characteristics of qualitative research.
- data typically includes verbal statements such as direct quotes from participants, excerpts from writing samples, or detailed descriptions of behavior
- rely on inductive reasoning to formulate a theory
-study their participants in a natural environment/situation
-usually recruit only a small number of participants and spend a considerable amount of time observing/interviewing them
-responsive to participants
-open ended in their research approach
-adjust their procedures as a situation dictates
Which of the following research questions is most appropriate for a quantitative approach?
Which is most appropriate for a qualitative approach?
a. What are the differences between the school interactions, both with peers and teachers, of fifth-grade students with communication disorders and fifth-grade students with typical communication?
b. To what extent does parent education level predict the interaction skills of parents of 1-year-old infants with a history of very low birth weight and parents of 1 year-old infants with normal birth weight?
--looking for explanation data and qualitative differences in the classroom
--looking for numerical predictions for interaction skills of parents
Which of the following are nonexperimental research approaches? Select all that apply.
a. randomly assigning participants to treatment and control groups
b. correlation study comparing scores on two tests
c. comparing children with communication disorders to age-matched peers
d. A-B-A-B single subject design
e. survey of a random sample of speech-language pathologists
b, c, e
What "threat" to credibility or validity might be occurring in the following scenario? A qualitative researcher was interested in studying how children with specific language impairment (SLI) communicated with their classroom teachers. The researcher believed that SLI would interfere with effective classroom communication. The researcher only wrote down instances which communication breakdowns occurrred between the children and their teachers.
List two strategies qualitative researchers use to address the issue of researcher bias.
reflexivity: consider previous experiences and beliefs associated with the topic of the study and reflect on how they might have influenced their approach to the question, data collection and interpretation
negative case sampling: test their conclusions by a deliberate attempt to find instances in their data that are at odds with the conclusions
How do qualitative researchers assure that they have accurately portrayed the meaning of their participants' actions, statements, and beliefs?
participant feedback is used to assure the researcher has accurately portrayed the meaning of their participants' actions, statements, and beliefs
might ask the participants to read factual descriptions of an interpretation of an event and provide their view points on the accuracy of the description
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Research quiz 3
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