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ffa contest horse judging

horse judging test
STUDY
PLAY
a problem delivery is called? a parturition b dystocia c amniotic d placenta
dystocia
a horse that eats too much lush grass or a large quantity of grain is at risk for? a colitis b thrush c navicular syndrome d lamintitis
lamititis
a horse's hoof has 3 areas when looking at it from the bottom of it. They are called the heels, quarters,and the_____? a sides b ends c bars d toe
toe
a horse that interferes when he/she walks is usually? a splay footed b pigeon toed c post legged d buck kneed
splayfooted
inbreeding is one way used to increase fertility in horses true or false?
false
energy requirements for horses descried in terms of a digestible energy b gross energy c metabolized energy d net energy
digestible energy
a horse affected by heaves____________? a has difficulty expelling air from the lungs b will recover without treatment c is suitable for heavy work
has difficulty expelling air from the lungs
if you are working with a horse and they start swishing their tail despite the absence of flies, what would their body language indicate? a affection b irritation c boredom d submissiveness
irritation
where are a horse's splint bones located? a on the back side of the fetlock b along the side of the cannon bone c on the front side of the hock d behind the coffin bone
along side the cannon bone
what condition of the foot is destruction of the frog by anaerobic bacteria? a laminitis b founder c thrush d absecss
thrush
the primary weight-bearing structure of the horse's hoof is the___? a frog b sole c white-line d hoofwall
hoof wall
which of the following is NOT true of the equine digestive system? a horses have an enlarged gallbladder b horses have a relatively small stomach c horses have a one-way valve leading into the stomach d horses can digest fiber through microbial digestions
horses have an enlarged gallblader
a horse that toes out with its front feet tends to swing its feet inward when its legs are in action true or false/
true
Laminitis and navicular disease syndrome are unsoundness's found in the horse's a knee b pastern c hock d foot
foot
a horse that has permanent central incisors but deciduous lateral and corner incisors is most likely a 1 yr. b 2 yrs. c 3 yrs. d 4 yrs.
3 yrs.
the splay footed horse's front feet deviate from a straight line by swinging to the inside true or false?
true
ovulation in mares usually occurs? a during diestrus b toward the end of estrus c the first day of estrus d during anestrus
toward the end of estrus
the gene for black coat color is dominate to the gene for brown true or false/
true
which of the following is NOT true about horse's natural behavior/ a horses are naturally prey animals b horses use fighting as their primary means of survival c horses migrate to follow food sources d horses have a very strong desire to investigate new things
horses use fighting as their primary means of survival
line breeding is a form of? a inbreeding b out-crossing c crossbreeding d unrelated breeding
inbreeding
a horse that stands 15 hands tall is? a 60" tall to top of the withers b 60" tall at the top of the hips c 45" tall at the top of the withers d 45" tall at the top of the hips
60" tall at the top of the withers
a horse is "back at the knee" would be called? a buck kneed b calf kneed
buck kneed
the horse is most fertile when the length of day light is? a longest b shortest c equal in hours of light and darkness
longest
which of the following is NOT a majior cause of lamitis? a over eating of sugars and starches b retained fetal membranes c too much protein in the diet d working routinely on hard ground
to much protein in the diet
which of the following colors of horses is most likely to have skin tumors? a black b gray c sorrel d paint
gray
most horse's need their hooves trimmed and their shoes reset(if shod) every ___ weeks? a 2-4 b 6-8 c 12-14 d 6 months
6-8
the trot is? a 2 beat diagonal gait b a 4 beat diagonal gait c a 2 beat lateral gait d a 4 beat lateral gait
a 2 beat diagonal gait
foals should first be wormed when they are? a 1 week b 2 months c 8 months d 1 yr.
2 months
the small bones extending downward along side the cannon bane are called? a splint bones b first and third phalanges c accessory carpal bones
split bones
stallions that are unilateral crypt orchids are? a sterile and cannot be used for breeding b fertile and should be used for breeding c fertile and should not be used for breeding d none of the above
fertile and should not be used for breeding
in English performance classes, which of the following is considered illegal? a double twisted wire mouthpieces b snaffle bit rings that are 6" in diameter c mouthpiece that is 3/4" in diameter d corkscrew mouthpiece
snaffle bit rings that are 6" in diameter
most digestion of fiber takes place in the horse's? a stomach b small intestine c cecum and large colon
cecum and large colon
sand is poor bedding material because? it doesn't absorb moisture b is causes sand colic if ingested c its heavy d all of the above
it doesn't absorb moisture
________ of a horse's genetic make up would be inherited from its parental grand-dam? a 1/4 b /12 c 3/8 d 1/3
1/4
when paired genes is said to be homozygous for that gene true or false?
true
horses become infested with bots by eating grass contaminated with bot larvae true or false?
false
stomach bots are ___________? a adult parasites b larvae of 3 species of flies c eggs of nematodes d larvae of cestodes
larvae of 3 species of flies
what is vitamin E & selenium used to treat in horses? a blindness b naviculer disease c white muscle disease d bone disorders
white muscle disease
for purposes of showing or racing, a horse's age changes on? a Jan.1st b July 1st c march 1st d the date of its birth
Jan. 1st
bowed tendons are normally found? a on the front cannons b below the hock c in the front pasterns d in the stifle
on the front cannons
all bits with a jointed mouthpieces are snaffle bits true or false?
false
when giving oral reasons on a class of horses, one should? a mesmerize your notes b visualize the horses
visualize the horses
the normal rectal temperature of a horse at rest is? a 105 degrees f b 98.6 degrees f c 43.8 degrees f d 100.5 degrees f
100.5 degrees f
which disease is transmitted through animal bites, has up to a 2 month incubation period in horses, and causes symptoms ranging from lethargy to aggressiveness? a strangles b tetanus c west Nile virus d rabbies
rabbies
the most common cause of colic is? a parasites b overheating c malnutrition d moldy feed
parasites
horses eyes that are small and close together are called? a bovine eyes b blue eyes c pig eyes d wild eyes
pig eyes
which of the following is true? a legumes are high protein & calcium b grains are high in calcium c legumes are low in calcium
legumes are high in protein and calcium
in showing a western horses, with a curb bit and split reins, the rider should have? a one hand on the reins b both hands on the reins
one hand on the reins
foals are usually weaned at about ____ months of age? a 3 b 5 c 8 d 10
5
which of the following grains would be less likely to cause colic when fed to a horse? a corn b oats c wheat d milo
oats
a capped hock on a horse is usually? a an unsoundness b a blemish
a blemish
the internal parasite that causes a horse to rub the hair off their tail head is called? a ascurids b pin worms c stomach bots d stragyles
pin worms
on the average, horses need to have their feet trimed & shoes reset about every ___ weeks? a 3 b 6 c 12 d 24
6
______ is a disease of the horse's foot caused by the horse standing in a dirty stall? a enecphalomyelitis b colic c thrush d founder
trush
in the mature horse, b vitamins are synthesized by microorganisms? a stomach b small intestine c cecum or large intestine d all of the above
cecum or large intestine
a 6 year old horse has ____ permanent incisors? a 3 b 6 c 9 d 12
12
gestation length in mares is about____days? a 270 b 320 c 340 d 360
340
in a western ridding class which of the following is NOT permitted? a hack-a-more b spade bit c curb bit d gag bit
gag bit
a horse cantering in a circle to the left should be in the? a left lead b right lead
left lead
the hoof wall grows? a downward from the coronary b outward from coffin bone
downward from the coronary
the majior part of the horse's weight is supported by the hidquarters true or false?
false
the sharp edges on the horse's molars and premolars are filed smooth by a process called? a filing b rasping c floating d smoothing
floating
in judging western pleasure horses, the most desirable head carriage is? a poll level with the withers b poll 30 degrees above withers c poll 30 degrees below the withers d none of the above
poll level with the withers
the mare has an esstrus cycle that is ____ days in length on the average? a 14 b 21 c 28 d 30
21
twin pregnancies in horses are desirable because you can produce more foals per year true or false?
false
the cave-son or nose-band is? a legal for any show horse b used on hunters and jumpers
used on hunters and jumpers
the first premolar which sometimes interferes with the bridle bit is called a? a wolf tooth b canine tooth c hen's tooth
wolf tooth
a stallion reaches puberty around the age of? a 1 yr. b 2 yrs. c 6 months d 3 yrs.
1 yr.
if a reining horse includes an extra maneuver in the pattern he is given? a extra credit b no score c 0 score
0 score
strangles also known as distemper,is characterized by? a colic b profuse diarrhea c lymphnodes abscesses d lameness
lymphnodes abscesses
alternate grazing of cattle and horses will result in better forage utilization true or false?
true
in trimming the hoof, the hoof knife is used to? a trim off excess hoof wall b trim off excess dead sole c level the hoof d clean out the hoof
trim off excess dead sole
the hoof wall is thickest at? a the toe b the heel
the toe
the 2 patrs of the mares estrus cycle are/ a estrus and diestrus b estrus and anestrus c diestrus and anetsrus
estrus and diestrus
whic of the following is NOT a contagious disease in horses? a heaves b strangles c influenza d viralarteritis
heaves
a horse that has excessive angle in the hock when viewed from the side is called? a sickle hock b cow hocked c post legged
sickle hock
in ridng horses with a snaffle bit or hack-a-more the rider has? a one hand on the reins b both hands on the reins
both hands on the reins
an unsoundness more common in horses with sickle hock is? a bowed tendon b curb c ring bone d capped hock
curb
immediate protection against tetanus may be given to horses by administering? a tetanus toxiod b tetanus antitoxin c a killed bacteria
tetanus antitoxin
lameness in horses is usually detected when a horse is being worked at a? a walk b trot c canter d gallop
trot
the fetlock joint is located between the ___ and ___? a long and short pastern bone b cannon and long patern bone c forearm and cannon bone d knee and cannon bone
cannon and long pastern bone
stallions reach maximum production of sperm around? a december b march c july d september
july
during the normal breeding season, estrus in mares averages_____days in lengt? a 1-2 b 5-7 c 20-22
5-7
most of the excess hoof wall is removed when the hoof is trimmed using the? a rasp b nippers c hoofknife d sole knife
nippers
a horse that hits the sole off of the front foot with the toe of te hind foot of the same side it is said to be? a scalping b cross firing c shin hitting d forging
forging
an average score in a reining class wouls be? a 20 pts. b 50 pts. c 70 pts. d 100 pts.
70 pts.
the need for high quality protien is greatest for? a lactating mares b gestrating mares c yearlings d weanlings
weanlings
straw that is left long in length? a absorbs less water tan choped straw b is more dusty than chopped straw c ussually results in more straw being used d none of the above
absorbs less water than chopped straw
in quarter horse classes suc as western riding, snaffle bits are legal for horses? a 2 yrs. and older b 5 yrs. and younger c not used at all d ok for any age horse
5 yrs and younger
in classes where horses jump fences, it is assumed tht the strides of the horses are ____ft. in lenght and distance between fences are based on that figure? a 12 b 6 c 20 d 25
12
the fal os born with disease immunities because it gets sntbodies through the placenta true or false?
false
when paired genes are identical, the animal is said to behomozygous for that gene true or false?
true
horses are best discribed as? a ruminants b carnivors c nonruminant herbivors d none of the above
nonruminant herbivors
the primary source of energy in horse rations are? carbohydrates b fats c proteins d vitamins
carbohydrates
horses that are over at the knee injuries than those that are back at the knee true or false?
false
which of the following is NOT true in regards to AQHA show rules? a when using a romal, no fingers are allowed between reins b a 6 yr. old horse may be shown with a snaffle bit if they have not won a class in that diivision c a curb strapor chain in required for use with a curb bit d you are allowed to alter a horse's tail function or tail carriage by surgical methods
a 6 yr. old horse may be shown with a snaffle bit if they have not won a class in that division
toe and heel clips on shoes are used to? a improve b help hold the shoe in position c add weight to the shoe d all of the above
help hold the shoe in position
mature hay is? a higher in digestible energy content than in mature hay b higher in lignin than immature hay c higher in protein than immature hay d none of the above
higher in lignin than in mature hay
which internal parasite is of greatest concern with newborn foals? a ascarids b small strongyles c thread worms d tape worms
thread worms
which of the following is a draft horse breed? a saddle bred b belgian c arabian d paso fino
belgian
the name of the dark line that is present on the upper incissors and is helpful for aging horses over the age of 10 is called? a pulp cavity b galvayne's groove c dental star d incisor cup
galvayne's groove
when selecting hay for horses you look for all the following except? a green in color b leafless c mold free d fine stemmed
leafless
what 2 species are mated to produce a mule? a mare and stallion b mare and jack c jenny and stallion d molly mule and john mule
mare and jack
which disease in the horse has swollen and painful lymphnodes of abscesses? a influenza v tetanus c stragels d west Nile
strangels
sufolk is a breed of? a ponies b draft horses c dogs
draft horses
most of the horse's weight rests on the? a hoof wall b soles of the feet
hoof wall
traditionally, we lead horses from the right true or false?
false
a cross between a stallion and mare is called a? a hinny b mule c burro d none of the above
none of the above
horses whose knees are sprung forward are called? a buck kneed b calf kneed c bench kneed d bow legged
buck kneed
the ovarian hormones that control the mare's estrus cycle are? estrogens and progesterns b FSH and LH c testosterone and thyroxin
estrogens and progesterns
you breed the most mares to one stallion by? a AI b hand mating c pasture breeding
AI
a horse that is 64" tall at the top of the withers is? a 14 hands b 15 hands c 16 hands d 17 hands
16 hands
a respitory desease of horses characterized by swollen lymph glands under the jaw is called?a flu b rhinkopn wumonitis c strangles
strangles
a hunter horse approaching a fence should? a move at a steady pace b increase in speed as he approaches the fence c slow down as he approaches the fence
move at a steady pace
a respiratory disease of horses that causes swollen lymph nodes around the throat latch area is called? a strangles b rhodococcus c rhinopneumonitis d influenza
strangles
in giving reasons for placing a class of horses the terms should be? a comparative b descriptive
comparative
the reproductive status of a nonpregnate mare in December is usually? a diestrus b anestrus c estrus
anestrus
a mature 1200 horse would normally eat about ____lbs. of hay and grain per day? a 5 b 10 c 20 d 40
20
the "offside" corresponds to the horse's? a left side b right side c opposite side
right side
a horse that is 62" tall would be considered how many hands tall? a 15 b 62 c 15.5 d 15.2
15.2
which of the following is true of a horse's vision? a they can see all the way around their body b only have one blind spot behind them c they have only monocular vision d they have binocular and monocular
they have binocular and moncoular
the tarus joint is the? a fetlock b elbow c knee d hock
hock
the primary reason black walnut shavings are not used is because they can cause a horse to develop? a cushings b choke c laminitis d colic
lamitis
which internal parasite utilizes mites during their life cycle? a small strangles b ascardis c pin worms d tape worms
tape worms
what coat color appears tan or golden? a bay b dun c palomino d buckskin
dun
fertilization of the mare takes place in the? a uterus b Fallopian tube c ovary d cervix
Fallopian tube
what is the exterior opening to the mare's reproductive tract? a vagina b vulva c clitoris d cervix
vuvla
during foaling how long should it take to deliver the foal after the mare's water breaks? a < 30 min. b 1 hr. c 2 hrs. d 3 hrs.
< 30 min.
you are shaping a horse to flex at the poll. in regards to training shaping means? a physically manipulating a horse's head into a flexed position b rewarding each small movement toward flexing c asking the horse to do something else in hopes the he will flex naturally
rewarding each small movement toward flexing
which of the following is NOT carried or transmitted by external parasites? a west Nile b infectious anemia c stomach bots d tetanus
tetanus
spermatogenesis usually takes about ___ days? a 18 b 25 c 30 d 65
65
what part of the horse's body is the major site of nutrient absorption? a large intestine b cecum c stomach d small intestine
small intestine
a horse with a reddish brown body black mane and tail and legs would be a? a sorrel b brown c bay d roan
bay
which horse will have the highest energy requirement? a growing yearlings b pregnant mares c trail riding geldings d lactating mares
lactating mares
the antitoxin form of tetanus gives protection for a year or more true or false?
false
Caveson(or nose band) is used on a horse shown in? a western pleasure b reining c hunter under saddle
hunter under saddle
when viewed from the side, the angle of the hoof should be? a greater than the angle of the pastern b less than the angle of the pastern c the same as the angle of the pastern
the same as the angle of the pastern
what color is not possible to produce when breeding 2 palominos together? a palomino b cremello c sorrel d buckskin
buckskin
estrus cycles in mares are usually longer in March than in June true or false?
true
energy requirements for horses are effected more by? a lactation b gestation
lactaion
the coggins test is used to determine whether or not a horse is a carrier of? a EIA b rhinopneumonitis c EEE d african horse sickness
EIA
draft horses originated in? a Northern Europe b Asia c China d U.S.
Northern Erope
a bowed tendon is usually a more serious injury than a splint true or false?
false
the least desirable flooring material for horse stalls is? a clay b wood c concrete d asphalt
concrete
peak lactation in the mare occurs how many weeks after foaling? a 1-4 b 4-8 c 8-12 d 12-16
4-8
horses can gain an active immunity against tetanus by? a ingesting colostrum b receiving a blood transfusion c vaccination d none of the above
vaccination
the relationship of a horse to its great-grandparents is? a 50% b 25% c 12.5% d 6.25%
12.5%
the hind gut of the horses is a site of microbial digestion of fibrous feeds into what energy source for the horse?a sugars b volatile fatty acids c cellulose d amino acids
volatile fatty acids
blisters beetles can be fatal to horses i ingested. they are found in/ a clover pastures b fescue grass c alfalfa hay d moldy corn
alfalfa hay
the structure of the forequarters determines? a length of stride b soundness c smoothness of gait d all of the above
all of the aove
thrush is often caused by/ a failure of the horse owner to clean stalls properly and clean the feet daily b improper shoeing c a virus d a genetic defect
failure of the horse owner to clean stalls properly and clean the feet daily
bowed tendons are a serious unsoundness that sometimes occurs in the? a forearm b front cannon c pastern d knee
front cannon
which of the following does NOT make a bit more sensitive in the horse's mouth? a longer shank b higher port c thinner diameter of mouthpiece d tighter brow strap
tighter brow strap
the front feet are normally more pointed in shape that the rear ones true or false?
false
shoeing can be helpful in? a protecting a horse's feet b improving a horse's gait increasing traction d all of the above
all of the above
a mule is produced by crossing a? a horse male with a donkey female b horse female with a donkey male c donkey female with a jack
horse female with a donkey male
which of the following diseases is contagious between infected horses? a EIA b EPM c West Nile virus d Tetanus
Tetanus
which disease is contracted when bacteria in vades a deep punture wound? a rabbies b tetanus c stragles d EIA
tetanus
roughages are much? ahigher in phosphorous b higher in calcium than grain c lower in calcium than grains
higher in calcium than in grains
a substance that is very rich in antibodies and provides a newborn foal with their initial immune function is called? a colostrum b meconium c amniom d calcium
colostrum
horny irregular growths in the inside the horse's cannons are called? a horns b chestnuts c ergots d almonds
chestnuts
which of the following is a breed that allows registration strictly on color, without bloodline requirement? a appaloosa b american paint horse c international buckskin horse d lipizzan
international buckskin horse
which of the following does NOT describe the trot or jog? a has more bounce than the walk b can be in either the left or right lead c is a 2 beat gait d had diagonal pairs of legs moving together
can be in either the left or right lead
foals are born with their first set of inscisors already grown in true or false?
false
at what age does the galvens grove begin to appear? a 6 yrs. b 10 yrs. c 15 yrs. d 20 yrs.
10 yrs.
which is NOT a fault to the hind leg? a cow-hock b bow-legged c post-legged d sickle-hocked
bow legged
what is any deviation in structure or function that interfers with the horse's intended use or preformance? a unsoundness b blemish c disorder d disability
unsoundness
which teeth are usually removed from a horse's mouth? a wolf teeth b incisors c canine teeth d deciduous teeth
wolf teeth
a horse that has a club foot is described as? a having to much angle to their hoof b having to much angle to their pastern c being too straight up and down in their hoof d being too straight up and down in their pastern
being to straight up and down in their hoof
which is NOT a common characteristic we select for in a horse's head? a large eyes b long ears c large nostril d refined muzzle
long ears
which disease can be spread among horses if one becomes infected? a encephalomyelitis b west Nile c tetanus d herpes virus
herpes virus
the normal tempurature of a horse is usually near? a 96.8 degree f b 99.5 degree f c 103 degree f d 105 degree f
99.5 degree f
in the equine industry, weaving refers to? a ahorse pacing up and down a fence line b a horse swaying its head,neck, and chest left and right
a horse swaying its head,neck,and chest left and right
the general term for a baby horse is? a filly b kid c colt d foal
foal
how many beats does the gallop have? a 1 b 2 c 3 d 4
4
the horomone responsible for maintaining pregnancy is? a progesterone b esterogen c HCG d PMSG
progesternone
a horse with goldencolor body and white mane and tail is a? a buckskin b palomino c dun
palomino
the horse's digestive system is best adapted to? a higher gain rations b several small meals c one large meal per day
several small meals
a horse that is trying to see far away objects will? a lower its head b raise its head c tilt its head d squint its eyes
raise its head
curb chains for bridles used in showing western horses must be at least ______ inches? a 1/4 b 1/2 c 3/4 d 1
1/2
if a reining horse backs up 3 strides in a place in the pattern that does not require it what happens/what does it reseave?
no score
which of the following grasses is well adapted to cool-season regions? a sudans b blue stem c bermuda grass d timothy
timothy
a coggins test screens a horse's blood for whih disease? a EVA b Equine Goggins c EHV d EIA
EIA
speed of horses is? a a quantitative affected by many paired genes b a trait that is low in heritability, varying mostly because of training and conditioning c a qualitative trait, affected by only a few pairs of genes
a quantitative trait affected by many pairs of genes
paint horses that are "crop outs" are? a overos b tobianos
overos
leverage type bits used on bridles are? a curb bits b snaffle bits
curb bits
the normal resperation rate of an adult horse at rest is? a 8-16/min b 16-25/min c 30-40/min d 230-250/min
8-16/min
newborn foals require an adequate meal of colostrum during the first hours o life because? a they are born with no antibodies b they are born with inadequate energy reserves c they are born with inadequate reserves of meconium d they are born with inadequate vitamin a reserves
they are born with no antibodies
the internal parasite that causes tail rubbing due to itching and irritation is the? a bot b large strongyle c pin worm dround worm
pin worm
a mare bred on may 8th would be expected to foal about? a Feb. 12 b April 13 Jan. 10
April 13
small pointed teeth that sometimes appear at the base of the first pre-molar tooth are termed? a cannine teeth b dental caps c wolf teeth incisors
wolf teeth
which of the following is a forelimb unsoundness? a thoroughpin b dog spavin c bone spavin d bowed tendon
bowed tendon
a 2 beat gait where the left forefoot and hindefoot strike the ground at the same time is the? a canter b walk c pace d trot
trot
a long,sloping shoulder results in the horse having? a a long stride b a short stride c rough gaits d upright (too straight) pasterns
a long stride
the age of a horse can be determined up to 9 years of age by examing the? a molars b canine teeth c incisors d pre-molars
incisors
a good grass for small pastures or paddocks where traffic is heavy is? a timothy b blue steam c fescue d red clover
fescue
a normal heart beat rate for a mature horse at rest is? a 36-40 bpm b 50-54 bpm c 60--64 bpm d 66-70 bpm
36-40 bpm
which of the conditions listed is a temporary unsoundness commonly found on the front cannon of 2 yr. old horses? a ring bone b bone spavin c side bone d splint
splint
a common cause of lamintitis in horses is? a eating to much hay b trimming the feet to short c over eating d all of the above e none of the above
over eating
sleeping sickness is common name for? a encephalomeylistis b rhinopneumonitis c distemper
encephaalomeylistis
prostaglandin F2-alpha can be used to? a cause ovulation b cause luteolysis c delay esturs d increase fertility in stallions
cause luteolysis
"colection" in horses terms means only that the horse flexes at the poll true or false?
false
the canter is a? a 2 beat gait b 3 beat gait c 4 beat gait
3 beat gait
the horse's hoof grows at the rate of about? a 1/4"-3/8" per month b 5/8"-3/4" per month c 1"-1 1/2" per month
1/4"-3?8" per month
mares that foal indoors should have a clean box stall bedded with? a straw b shavings c sand
straw
pregnancy can be detected earlier in mares by which of the following methods? a palpation of the uterus b ultrasound c M.I.P. test
ultrasound
from a genetics standpoint,the 2 basic colors of horses are? a black and chestnut b sorrel and bay c white and black gray and roan
black and chestnut
a grey horse may be nearly white at birth,but gets darker as it gets older true or false?
true
the hoof wall is? a thicker at the top than at the bearing surface b thicker at the toe than at the heel c composed of sensitive tissue,containing many nerve endings
thicker at the toe than at the heel
a male horse at a year is a colt,a female horse of the same age is called a? a mare b filly c gelding d stallion
filly
the horse's stomach is? a about the same size as a cow's rumen b small reative to its total body size c a site where microbial fertation takes place
small relative to its body size
the type of bits used on bridles used when a horses are first ridden are called? a curb b snaffle c spade d leverage
snaffle
estrus cycles in mares are normally nonexistant in? a Dec. b Jun. c Aug.
Dec.
the best dietary ratiopf calcium to phosphorus for horses listed below is? a 0.5:1 b 1.5:1 c 2.5:1 d 5:1
1.5;1
a breed of horses that originated in Missouri is? a foxtrotter b quarter horse c morgan d palomino
foxtrotter
when a saddle is put on a horse,the first thing that should be fastened is the? a front cinch or girth b back cinch c breast collar
front cinch or girth
a horse carries about____% of his/her weight on his/her front legs? a 40 b 50 c 60 d 70
60
a 2 beat gait where the left forefoot and the right hindfoot strike the ground at the same time is the? a canter b walk c pace d trot
trot
how was the first horses used for? a weapons b pet c food d entertainment
food
who first kept herds of horses for uses other than food? a chinese b Scythians cGreeks d Italians
Chinese
when was the horse reintroduced to america? a 1600's b 1500's c 1400's d 1300's
1400's
who did not reintroduce the horse to the united states? a Columbus b Conquistadors c Missionaries d Germans
Germans
the horse population increased in the u.s. until when? a 1910's b 1920's c 1930's d 1940's
1920's
in the u.s.,when did the decrease in horse numbers and popularity stop? a 1930's b 1940's c 1950's d 1960's
1960's
how are horses classified? a size and shape b size,build,and weight c build and shape d color only
size build and weight
how large are light horses? a 14-17 hands and 900-1400 lbs b less than 14 hands and around 1000 lbs c 14-17 hands and around 1000 lbs d 14-17 hands and 1400+ lbs
14-17 hands and 900-1400 lbs
are large are draft horses? a 14-17 hands and 1000 lbs b 12-14+ hands and 1000 lbs c 14-17+ hands and 1400 lbs or more d 10-12 hands and 1000 lbs
14-17+ hands and 1400 lbs or more
how do horses react to people? a the same,no matter what b in a positive matter c differently, depending on the horse d in a negative way
differently depending on the horse
what is indicated when a horse's ears are perked forward? a it is about to kick b it is about to go to sleep c it is about to go to sleep d it is interested in something
it is interested in something
what is indicated when a horse's ears are backward and it's eyes are relaxed? a it's about to kick b it's about to go to sleep c it's angry at something d it's interested in something
it's about to go to sleep
what is meant by barn souring? a the horse makes the barn smell sour b the barns conditions make the horse smell sour c the horse refuses to leave the safety of the barn d the horse refuses to enter the barn
the horse refuses to leave the safety of the barn
how can a horse be stopped from bolting it's feed? a putting pea-sized rocks in in with the feed b putting baseball-sized rocks in with the feed c lumping the feed up d with holding the feed
putting baseball-sized rocks in with the feed
where are the a horse's blind spots? a on its side and rear b directly in front of it and directly behind it c on either side of it's head d on either side of its body
directly in front of it and directly behind it
when should a foal be worked with? a as soon as possible b at six months c at 12 months of age
as soon as possible
what is the most important quality of an effective trainer to have? a patients b loud voice c plenty of energy d a lot of help
patients
how should discipline be ministered? a out of anger b promptly, but never out of anger c at the end of the training session d by someone else
promptly, but never out of anger
what kind pf gene combination causes a foal to die? a bad b Co-dominate c incomplete dominate d lethal
lethal
how many pairs of chromosomes does the horse have? a 23 b 28 c 32 d 64
32
what do the mare's ovaries produce? a ova b sperm c semen d placenta
ova
the cervix is a strong muscle that preforms what function? a controls egg production b keeps foreign matter out of the uterus c serves as the birth canal d transport ova to the uterus
keeps foreign matter out of the uterus
after the ova is expelled from the ovary, what does it travel through? a cervix b uterus c vagina d fallopian tube
fallopian tube
what do the stallion's testicles produce? a fluids b eggs c sperm cells d none of the above
sperm cells
what is the most common form of breeding? a A.I. b hand breeding c natural breeding d none of the above
hand breeding
the sperm is mixed with fluid from where? a seminal vesicles b prostate gland c Cowper gland d all of the above
all of the above
what are the 3 steps in using A.I.? a collection,evaluation,and parturition b insemination,evaluation,and parturition c collection,evaluation,and insemination d collection,parturition,and evaluation
collection,evaluation,and insemination
what process is parturition? a A.I. b giving birth c servicing the mare d natural breeding
giving birth
how soon after the foal's birth is the afterbirth usually expelled? a 1-2 hrs. b 2-3 hrs. c 3-4 hrs. d 4-5 hrs.
2-3 hrs.
what color is colostrum? a yellowish b bluish c reddish d greenish
yellowish
as compared to regular milk,which is true about colostrum? a produced after regular milk b lower in protein c higher in antibodies d not important
higher in antibodies
what is dystocia?a the process of giving birth b the first milk let-down c the result of lethal genes d when a mare has difficulty giving birth
when a mare has difficulty giving birth
what can a retained placenta cause? a mottled coat b nasal infection c multiple births d laminitis
laminitis
what can be done to prevent horses for contracting diseases? a vaccinate against them b don't have horses c put goats with the horses d keep mares and geldings separate
vaccinate against them
which are three diseases for which horses are commonly vaccinated? a flu,sleeping sickness,and measles b flu,sleeping sickness,and mumps c sleeping sickness,tetanus,and flu d none of the above
sleeping sickness,tetanus,and flu
for what disease should horses be vaccinated? a everything that there are vaccines for b for every disease common to the us c according to
according to the veterinarian recommendations
which describes the process of floating a horse's teeth? a washing them with water b filing them c pulling them d none of the above
filing them
what is another name for strangels? a choking disease b strangling disease c breathing disease d distemper
distemper
what does EIA (swamp fever) affect in horses? a liver b lung c blood d heart
blood
lockjaw is another name for which disease? a tetanus b rabies c sleeping sickness d flu
tetanus
what does Potomac horse fever cause? a fever b loss of appetite c diarrhea d all of the above
all of the above
what are the two classifications of parasites? a internal and external b internal and intestinal c external and extraterrestrial d none of the above
internal and external
how are internal parasites controlled? a using dewormer b keeping stalls clean c dragging fields d all of the above
all of the above
which describes first aid? a quick and immediate aid instead of veterinarian b quick and immediate aid until the arrival of the veterinarian c quick and temporary aid of and injured animal d permanent aid of an animal
quick and temporary aid of an injured animal
what is the first step to take when an animal is bleeding? a stop or control bleeding b call a veterinarian c put a bandage on it d none of the above
stop or control the bleeding
when should a veterinarian be called? a when unsure about an injuries seriousness b everyday c for all injuries d none of the above
when unsure about an injuries seriousness
body color ranging from tan,through red,to reddish brown;mane and tail black;usually black on lower legs. a bay b chestnut c red dun d sorrel
bay
body color reddish brown or copper red; mane and tail usually same color as body,but be flaxen. a bay b chestnut c red dun d sorrel
sorrel
body color dark red or brownish red; mane and tail usually dark red or brownish red,but maybe flaxen. a bay b chestnut c red dun d sorrel
chestnut
a form of dun with body color yellowish or flesh color;mane and tail and dorsal stripe are usually red. mane and tail maybe flaxen. a sorrel b buckskin c red dun d palomino
red dun
body color yellowish or gold;mane and tail black;usually black on lower legs;usually no dorsal stripe. a sorrel b buckskin c red dun d palomino
buckskin
body color a golden yellow; mane and tail white;often born solid colored or almost solid colored and get lighter with age more white hairs appear. a palomino b white c gray d blue roan
gray
body color brown or black with light area at the muzzle,eyes,flank and inside upper legs;mane and tail and points black. a gray b brown c black d chestnut
brown
body color yellowish gold;mane and tail may be black,brown or mixed;usually has dorsal stripe; zebra stripes on legs;and transverse stripes over withers. a brown b black c chestnut d dun
dun
fitting a horse for showing? a should start a week before competing b is a year-round job c can cover up many blemishes if done correctly d includes clipping according to show rules
is a year-round job
when showing a horse, a if possible,have the front feet on higher ground than the rear feet b elevate the head and neck and level out the top line c move the horse slowly and carefully d more than on of the above
more than one of the above
when judging,the ideal horse should form in your mind with impressions from? a pictures and movies b breed association data c score cards and judges d all of the above e b and c only
all of the above
when leading a horse in the showmanship-at-halter class. a lead from the right side with the excess shank rolled around your hand b lead from the left with the lead shank in the right hand 6-12" from the halter c keep the horse's head down and subdued
lead from the left with the lead shank in the right hand 6-12" from the halter
the art of riding horseback is called? a collection b meditation c recitation d equitstion
equitstion
in equitation classes? a only riders are judged so any horse is acceptable if suited to the riding class b stallions are preferred as they exhibit spirit c even minor unsoundness penalizes the rider d even a mount hard to control is accepted
only the riders are judged so any horse is acceptable if suited to the riding class
in stock seat equitation, the rider will be judged on? a the basis of seat and hands b performance of the horse and suitability of horse to rider c appointments of horse and rider d all of the above
all the above
in judging seat stock equitation, the arms? a are in a straight line with the body with the rein hand bent at the elbow b should be down at the sides with the fingers through the reins on the pommel c should be straight out with the rider's back stiff and alert d should have the left hand holding the reins and right hand resting on the pommel
are in a straight line with the body with the rein hand bent at the elbow
the basic position of the rider should be with? a knees slightly bent and weight directly over the balls of the feet b the heals lower than the toes c head up and shoulders back appearing erect yet comfortable, relaxed and flexible d all of the above e a and c only
all of the above
correct "appointments" may include? a whip,sandwich case and flask for hunting attire b western boots,western hat,western pants or jeans for western c frilly skirts for women and chaps for men d more than one f the above
more than one of the above
English equitation tests may involve? a backing up b addressing the reins c ridding with out stirrups d none of the above e all of the above
all of the above
western pleasure classes may require? a a horse to be shown at a walk,jog and lope b that horses be judged on manners, performance and ride pleasure c a horse to do an additional work out d a horse to do a reverse walk and trot d all of the above
all of the above
a trail ride pace should include? a be at a jog,either steady or intermittently b be at a medium pace with a good brisk walk c be slowed to the pace of the slowest horse d b e so the entire group keeps up with he lead horse
be at a medium pace with a good brisk walk
trail riding equipment should include? a as much feed as the horse would consume at home b a blanket for the horse at night c a hoof pick,tools to remove a loose shoe and grooming equipment d all of the above e a and c only
all of the above
when moving the horse during showing,move briskly and smartly, making any turns to the right of the horse with you moving around the front of the horse true or false?
true
when showing under saddle, be sure to have the correct equipment and have a set of the rules for the event true or false?
true
when showing under saddle, the rider should be actually be another part of the whole true or false?
true
when trimming horses for show, all breeds should have the long hair below the knees and hocks and around fetlocks trimmed including featherson draft breeds true or false?
false
normally the mane falls to a horse's left on a western horse and to the right on a English horse true or false?
true
in the 4-H judging scorecard, more points are possible on the horse's appearance than on the horse in showmanship-at-halter class true or false?
false
if a horse acts up in the show ring,reprimand him severely to let the judges know you are in control true or false?
false
when showing your horse, you do not have to confine your position to the front and the left but can move to afford the judge a better view of the horse true or false?
true
when constructing a budget for keeping a horse, count on bedding at pounds per animal per day. a 5 b 12 c 20 d 25
12
fences for horses? a would best be made of 2" lumber poles b can be made of woven wire or woven wire with a barbed wire top c both a and b d neither a or b
both a and b
a horse's building or home should? a keep the horse dry b protect the him from heat and cold c be designed for easy care of the horse d be properly ventilated and kept clean and sanitary e all of the above
all of the above
a portion of every horse facility should include? a a place to keep tack b necessary feed storage c provision for plenty of clean water d all of the above e a and c only
all of the above
regarding materials for horse building construction? a consider concrete blocks b wood is the only appropriate material c never use a pole shed with a metal shed d a steel building would not be good because it sweats
consider concrete blocks
ventilation is important to? a insure air circulation in the summer b prevent conduction and moister in the winter c both a and b d none of the above
both a and b
the stall size will vary with the size of the horse but normally should be? a 5' wide by 8' long b 4' wide by 6' long c 3' wide by 5' long d none of the above
5' wide by 8' long
flooring selection for horse buildings should include? a clay,which is excellent but hard to disinfect b plank,which may be slippery,wear out and hard to disinfect c all of the above d b and c only
clay,which is excellent but hard to disinfect
water previsions may? a be a water bucket in the corner b be a water bowl,which is expensive but excellent c be a tank with a partial cover and heater outside d all of the above e b and c only
all of the above
secure bedding which may be? a wood shavings if cheap and available b peat moss which is expensive but excellent straw or old hay which is not moldy d any of the above e a and c only
any of the above
hay should be stored? a in a detaching building b overhead of ease if handling and to serve as insulation c on a hay rack outside d at least 50 yards away for fire saftey
in a detaching building
sanitation should? provide for proper draining and freedom from stagnant water and insect infestation b provide for disposing of manure c include darkness and spraying stalls to control insects d all of the above
all of the above
the part of the tack that is particularly important regarding safety would be the? a cinch b stirrups c reins d all of the above
all of the above
for cleaning your saddle, use? a plain soap and water b hilex and/or Lysol c saddle soap d mild sulfuric acid solution
saddle soap
to rodent-proof your feed toom? a store the feed in a metal bin b use concrete floors and walls c only bring lhome feed you can use in a week d more than one of the above
more than one of the above
fire protection for your facility?a would include a phone near or in the barn b should include clipping weeds and grass around the stable c might influence the selection of materials you use for construction d all of the above e a and b only
all of the above
besides the barn requirements, your space needs include? a open and fenced areas and outside lots b lanes,roads and parking space c special event appearance d fire protection and expansion e all of the above
all of the above
tie stalls? a are not as widely used for pleasure horses as box stalls b require about half the area of box stalls c require less bedding and are easier to clean d all of the above
all of the above
feed rooms may be equipped with? a garbage cans for feed containers b wood bins with tight lids c at least a 4' wide door d all of the above
all of the above
an open-front building? a is not recommended for very cold climates b is recommended if it is 40' wide and has 60-80 square feet per animal c is cheap and unsanitary d should face north
is recommended if it is 40' wide and 60-80 square feet per animal
lighting? a is necessary for both the safety of the horses and the attendant b is needed in stalls,alleys,pathways, approaches,storage and service areas c should have a 9' or higher 100 watt bulb in each stall d should have a 300 watt bulb in the foaling stall e all of the above
all of the above
shelter belts are effective if planned? a 50' from the buildings b all around the horse facility c on the east and south sides d 100 to 300' away from protected areas
100 to 300 feet away from protected areas
an insulation vapor barrier? a must be installed between the insulation and inside wall or celing lining b should always be on the inside and outside of the stud walls c is adequate if it is 2-mil poly or better d is never needed in horse facilities
must be installed between the insulation and inside wall or celing lining
wood preservatives? a should never be used around hrses because of their toxic effect b are recomended in commercially treated lumber or for structural framing c are optional in hrse construction d are not recommended in cold climates
are recommended in comersially treated lummber or for structural framing
corral straw or wood shvings usually make the best bedding for horses true or false?
true
the horse is a nobale animal so any building for him should be elaborate true or false?
false
a maternity stall should be provided with a size of 10'x10' up to 14'x14' true or false?
true
barn tools include a scoop shovel,eight-tine fork, wheelbarrow and a broom true or false?
true
zoning codes or rules may regiment where a horse may be kept or stabled true or false?
true
partitions between horses should be at least 6' for the front or manager and 4 1/2' at the rear true or false?
true
fumigating will kill rodentsw in livetock buildings true or false?
true
the two color patterns of the American paint horse breed are? a tobiano and overo b palomino and roan c leopard and blanket d white and cream
tobina and overo
the american saddle horse breed? a originated in nebraska b is colored white and cream c has an average height of 15 to 16 hands d has an average weight of 900 to 1000 lbs
has an average weight of 15 to 16 hands
the appaloosa breed? a originated in spain b is bay white or gray c is larger than most of the other light horses d is usually white over the hips and lions with dark,round or eggshaped spots
is usually white over the hips and lions with dark,roound or egg shaped spots
the arabian breed? a average 850 to 1000 lbs b is dun or red dun in color c is larger than most of the other light horse breeds d is used as mainly as a harness horse
averages about 850 to 1000 lbs
the palomino? a has a color which breeds true in crosses b is used mainly as a harness horse c may be colored three shades lighter or darker than the color of newly minted gold pieces d originated in the caribbean sea
may be colored three shades lighter or darker than newly minted gold pieces
the quarter horse breed? a has appaloosa coloring b originated in england c was so named because of its ability to run short distances faster than other breeds d is not popular on western ranches
was so named because of it's ability to run short distances faster than any other breeds
the draft horse breed? a are rapidly increasing in nubers in the united states b were originally developed as race horses c area smaller and lighter than riding horses d were selected and bred for thier ability to pull heavy loads
were selected and bred for their ability to pull heavy loads
a female less than three years of age is called a? a mare b foal c filly d colt
filly
the best and most reliable source of horses is? a a breeder b a private owner c an action d a dealer
a breeder
the two most important patrs of a horse are the? a head and back b head and shoulders c feet and legs d feet and back
feet and legs
a chestnut color? a is red with varigations from light yellow to dark liver color b varies from yellowish tan to bright mahogony c is almost brown d is very dark with tan or brown hair on the muzzle
is red with varigations of light yellwow to a dark liver color
poll evil is? a a condition where the upper jaw overshoots the lower jaw b an inflamation and swelling of the poll c faulty conformation d a condition where the upper jaw is shorter than the lower jaw
an inflamation and swelling of the poll
founder is a (an)? a inflamation of the back surface of the fetlock b inflamation of the navecular bone and bruse inside the hoof c inflamation of the sensative laminae d vertical splint in the wall of the hoof
inflamation of the sesitive laminae
the gallop is? a fast,2beat diagonal beat b fast 4 beat gait c fast 2 beat gait d slow lateral 4 beat gait
fast 4 beat gait
what is considered the best all around pasture for horses? a orchard grass b fescue c kentucky bluegrass d bromegrass
kentucky bluegrass
what is considered to be the best grain for horses? a corn b wheat c barley d oats
oats
horses sould be fed according to? a size b stage of growth c conddition and amount of work d all of the above
all of the above
breeding horses have a low conception rate. what is the national average? a 40-50% b 80-90% c 50-60% d 95-100%
50-60%
how many weeks before foaling does a mares under swell? a 2-6 b 6-8 c 8-10 d 10-12
2-6
a long handled rasp used to file horses teeth is called? a rasp b dental rasp c float d none of these
float
the two most common types of saddles used are? a english and austrailian b englich and western c english and scottish d western australian
english and western
the pelham bridle is used for? a pleasure riding b polo c hunting d all of the above
all of the above
a hackamore is similar to a bridle except? a it is made of raw hide b it has no bit c it has 2 bits d all of the above
it has no bit
a disease that is caused by some type of obstruction that blocks the flow of feed through the intestine? a colic b distemper c strangles d azoturia
colic
Registration? a is the insurance against disappointment in getting a valued sire or dam b is the best assurance of price at the time of sale c does not take a foot of stall space of a peck of oats d all of the above
all of the above
inside each cell are special chemical substances appearing as long thread-like structures occurring in pairs called? a genes b mitosis c chromosomes d mutations
chromosomes
in reproduction the muscular spongy organ of the female where the unborn animal develops is called? a uterus b womb c scrotum d more than one of the above
more than one of the above
the mule has ___pairs of chromosomes? a 23 b 33 c 27 d 30
33
the horomone which initiates lactation or milk secretion is? a pituitary b stilbesterol c prolactin d spermatogenesis
prolatin
the term which is commonly called the "heat" period is? a estrus b ovulation c copulation d none of the above
estrus
the process of gestation? a is the period from breeding to foaling b averages about 340 days c may vary from 300 to 370 days d more than one of the above
more than one of the above
sex cell division is called? a mitosis b reduction division c meiosis d epistasis
meiosis
the gene for black color is dominate to the gene for red color. if a stallion is genetically pure for black mates with a mare genetically pure for red,the offspring would? a all red b all black c
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