34 terms

Living Organisms-Char. & Levels

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unicellular
organisms that are made of only one cell
multicellular
organisms that are made of more than one cell
sexual reproduction
one cell from two parents combine to form a new organism
asexual reproduction
all or part of the organism is used to make a new organism from one parent
spontaneous generation
the mistaken idea that living things can arise from nonliving sources
Redi
designed a controlled experiment to support the hypothesis that maggots do not spring from decayed meat by putting the meat in un/covered jars
Pasteur
designed a controlled experiment to support the hypothesis that bacteria arise only from existing bacteria using broth in curved-necked flasks
growth
the process in which cells get larger and other new cells are added
develop
the process where cells and body parts become specialized for certain jobs
chemicals of life
water, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, DNA
carbohydrates
molecules which provide the cell's energy source
lipids
molecules which are a main component of cell membranes
proteins
molecules which are building blocks of the cell or they can control the rate of chemical reactions
DNA
the molecule which makes the organism's genetic material
autotroph
organisms that obtain their energy by making their own food
heterotroph
organisms that obtain their energy by feeding on other organism
metabolism
the combination of all chemical reactions through which an organism makes or breaks down cellular materials to use energy
stimulus
a change in the environment that causes a reaction from an organism
response
an action or change in behavior due to a stimulus
homeostasis
the maintenance of stable internal conditions, inside the organism
food, water, living space, stable internal conditions
the basic needs of all living organisms
taxon
a category into which related organisms are placed
taxonomy
the study of how organisms are classified
1) easier to study and 2) it uniformly names the organism
two benefits of classifying
Carolus Linnaeus
an 18th century taxonomist who classified organisms based on their structure using two words
binomial nomenclature
a two-word naming system of living organisms using its Genus and species name
species
a group of similar organisms that can mate with each other and produce offspring that can also mate and reproduce
domain>kingdom>phylum>class>order>family>genus>species
the hierarchy of taxonomy levels
prokaryote
a cell which has no nuclear membrane around its genetic material
eukaryote
a cell which has a nuclear membrane around its genetic material
characteristics in which domains are based
cell type, ability to produce food, number of cells
1) contain chemicals of life 2) grow &develop 3) respond to environment 4) reproduce 5) obtain&use energy 6) have cells
the six characteristics all living organisms have in common
hierarchy
to classify thing according to importance or inclusiveness
genus
a taxon which contains closely related organisms; used as the first name in binomial nomenclature