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Islam and the Arab Conquest through the Eleventh Century
Terms in this set (30)
The second-largest religion in the world.
Prophet of Islam, said that he was bringing God's message and preached out against social injustice.
Birthplace of Muhammad (city of Mecca).
A city in Arabia which was a center of trade roots, had many tribal societies, located halfway down the Red Sea.
Muhammad's flight to Medina where he took over the government there.
City where Muhammad took his flight to.
1. Proffession of Faith (allegiance)
2. Hijra - Make a pilgrimage to Mecca.
3. Pray 5 times a day.
4. Fast during the day (and water) during the month of Ramadan.
5. Alms - give money and stuff to the poor.
What are the five pillars of Islam?
Where you should spread the realm of Islam (thought that all people were born into the faith, but some just lost it), is a pillar when the religion is under attack.
Successor to a prophet.
Aku Bakr, Umar, Uthman, and Ali; a time of conquest (expansion and invasion of religion); marked the end of the Persian Sessanian Empire; time of the Qur'an.
Third emperor of the empire who has his men begin to put together the Qur'an, the holy book of Islam.
The holy book of Islam.
Son-in-law of Muhammad; was contested by Uthman's cousin Mu'awiya who thought that he was the rightful heir to the throne, which led to a civil war - he was eventually murdered by his followers for stepping down.
Caliphate that began with Mu'awiya.
Cousin of Uthman who thought that he was the rightful heir to the throne after Uthman (civil war), moves the capital to Damascus, where they adopt more Hellenistic / Greko-Roman Traditions and weren't 100% Muslim
When Mu'awiya dies, Ali's son Husayn ibn Ali wants to take over, but doesn't and gets killed in the battle of Karbala; causing a division in the religion.
Husayn ibn Ali
Son of Ali who wants to take over after Mu'awiya's Death, killed by Mu'awiya at the Battle of Karbala.
Division 1, Traditional way of the religion (Uthman; Mu'awiya), contained about 75% of the Religion's followers.
Other Division (2), Ali / Husayni's followers, had a smaller number of followers - about 15%; were under almost constant persecution, results in three major sects.
City, seized twice by the Ummayad Empire.
Battle where they met the French army under the control of Charles Martel, led to another Civil War.
Caliphate following the Battle of Tours and that division of the empire.
Where the capital is moved to under the Abbasid Caliphate; becomes an advanced center for Muslims.
Bayt-al-Hikma / House of Wisdom
A library established in Baghdad, becomes the largest one in the Western World.
Ruler of the Abbasids at their height, Caliph, sent gifts to Charlemegne; results in fragmentation.
Charlemagne, All Ummayads except for one were killed.
The Ummayad that wasn't killed went to ______________________ to spread their ideals.
Group with major city in Cairo, Major university - Al Azhar.
Major university of the Fatimids in the city of Cairo.
People who helped to undermine this religion and eventually became rulers and chief advisors.
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