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Pan American Conference

this was an international organization that dealt with trade; organized by james blaine; created to encourage cooperation and trust with the manufacturers

Joseph Pulitzer

publisher of "new York World" who used yellow journalism, was very critical of the Spanish

General 'Butcher' Weyler

attempted to deprive the cuban rebels of food and recruits by clacing the rural population of Cuba in detention camps in which tens of thousands of Civilians died.

William Randolph Hearst

owner of the New York Morning Journal San Francisco Examiner, "give me the picture,and ill furnish the war"

yellow journalism

sensational news coverage, emphasizing crime and scandal

Alfred Mahan

author that influenced sea power in history


extremely aggressive and militant patriot; warlike chauvinist; N. jingoism: extreme nationalism

Samoan Islands

1830's-US sent missionaries to Samoa and in 1878 US gets special trading rights & a naval port (Pago Pago).

Hawaiian Islands

the name of a chain of 8 large and 100 or so smaller islands to which American merchants, missionaries, & planters came

Cuban Crisis

Cuba was under Spain's colonial power and was facing rough times. America decides to intervene in order to establish some power and help Cuba win independence.

DeLome letter

Considered a cause of the Spanish-American War - letter from the Spanish ambassador criticizing President McKinley which was published in the Hearst newspaper.

U.S.S. Maine

President McKinley sent this ship to Havana, Cuba, to protect the American citizens and property (eventually blew up and the U.S. blamed Spain)

Theodore Roosevelt

26th president, known for: conservationism, trust-busting, Hepburn Act, safe food regulations, "Square Deal," Panama Canal, Great White Fleet, Nobel Peace Prize for negotiation of peace in Russo-Japanese War

Teller Amendment

Act of Congress in 1898 that stated that when the United States had rid Cuba of Spanish rule, Cuba would be granted its freedom It prevented Cuba from turning hostile towards the U.S., as well as gaining a somewhat kind of "smile" from Europe.

George Dewey

a United States naval officer remembered for his victory at Manila Bay in the Spanish-American War, U.S. naval commander who led the American attack on the Philippines

Battle of Santiago

massive naval engagement between Spain and U.S. during Spanish American War which resulted in the destruction of the Spanish Carribean Squadron

Rough Riders

Volunteer calvary unit led by Teddy Roosevelt that gained fame at the battle of San Juan Hill.

San Juan Hill

famous attack by Rough Riders, RESULT: US takes control of Cuba, Spain surrenders Guam, Puerto Rico, Philippines

Tampa Black Riots

when black military men face segregatin in Tampa, Florida, they respond with violent riots

Treaty of Paris 1899

US Gains Puerto Rico, Guam, Philippines (Imperialists and Isolationists debated treaty)

Platt Amendment

prevented newly independent Cuba from making treaties with other nations and gave the US control over Guantanamo Bay

Anti imperialists

opposed the treaty of paris on moral grounds

Emilio Aguinaldo

Filipino General - helped US take Philipines during Spanish-American war - helped Philippines gain freedom from US

White Man's Burden

A poem by British poet Rudyard Kipling commenting on American imperialism. It created a phrase used by imperialists to justify the imperialistic actions the U.S. took.

spheres of influence

areas in which countries have some political and economic control but do not govern directly

John Hay

Negotiated the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty to build Panama Canal with Britain in 1901, US secretary of state

Open Door Policy

Hay's idea that the great powers would respect the territorial and commercial integrity of China

Boxer Rebellion

a 1900 rebellion in which members of a Chinese secret society sought to free their country from Western influence

Panama Revolution of 1903

occurred in order to topple Colombian rule so that the United States could build the Panama Canal

Walter Reed

U.S doctor who drained swamps to suppress yellow fever during building of the Panama Canal

William Gorgas

Army physician who helped eradicate Yellow Fever and malaria from Panama to work on Panama canal could proceed

Dominican Republic Crisis

America annexed the area and had to decide whether to keep the area for it's own personal use or to free it with a price tag

Roosevelt Corollary

President Theodore Roosevelt's 1904 foregin policy statement, a corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, which asserted that the United States would intervene in Latin American afrairs if the countries themselves could not keep their affairs in order. Us was the policeman of the western hemisphere. It guided US policy in Latin America until it was replaced with FDR's Good Neighbor policy in the 1930s.

Big Stick Policy

A policy used by T.R. that was made to improve world peace, "Speak softly and carry a big stick."

Dollar Diplomacy

Term used to describe the efforts of the US to further its foreign policy through use of economic power by gaurenteeing loans to foreign countries

William Gorgas

Army physician who helped eradicate Yellow Fever and malaria from Panama to work on Panama canal could proceed

Russo Japanese War

A conflict that grew out of the rival imperialist ambitions of the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over Manchuria and Korea.

Portsmouth Conference

Roosevelt offers a peace conference mediation but it ruins our relations w/ Russia and Japan.

Japanese Student Issue Gentlemen's Agreement

An agreement with Japan where Japan agreed to limit immigration, and Roosevelt agreed to discuss with the San Francisco School Board that segregation of Japanese children in school would be

Great White Fleet

16 American battleships, painted white, sent around the world to display American naval power

Pancho Villa

mexican revolutionary who killed many americans in mexico. The United States sent John J Pershing to capture him but never did.

Thorstein Veblen

a renowned economist; argued that businessmen were motivated by greed, that the economic system did not regulate itself by natural laws, and that government experts should develop policies for giving direction to the economy


Journalists who attempted to find corruption or wrongdoing in industries and expose it to the public

Theodore Dreiser

wrote novels depicting workers as being brutalized by greedy business owners

John Dewey

professor at Columbia University, formed the foundation of so-called progressive education

Anti-Saloon League

U.S. organization working for prohibition of the sale of alcoholic liquors. Founded in 1893 by representatives of temperance societies and evangelical Protestant churches, it came to wield great political influence.

Madison Grant

was known primarily for his work as a eugenicist and conservationist; Scientific racist


Procedure whereby a certain number of voters may, by petition, propose a law or constitutional amendment and have it submitted to the voters


The practice of letting voters accept or reject measures proposed by the legislature


Procedure for submitting to popular vote the removal of officials from office before the end of their term.


(Women's Christian Temperance Union) group organized in 1874 that worked to ban the sale of liquor in the U.S.

Robert LaFollette

was the governor of Wisconsin,Leader of the Progressives

Birth of a Nation

Movie released in 1915 - promoted White supremecy and pro KKK - first blockbuster


National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, founded in 1909 to abolish segregation and discrimination, to oppose racism and to gain civil rights for African Americans, got Supreme Court to declare grandfather clause unconstitutional

Margaret Sanger

she organized a birth-control movement which openly championed the use of contraceptives in the 1920's.


The Industrial Workers of the World, fighting to take possession of the machinery of production and abolish the wage system.

Jacob Riis

a photo Journalist in the late 1800s whose book how the other half lives exposed the awful conditions of NYC's slums and poor people

Judge Landis

an American jurist who served as a federal judge from 1905 to 1922, and subsequently as the first commissioner of Major League Baseball

William Howard Taft

Successor of Roosevelt; Different views than Teddy; part of political corruption; Passed Sixteenth Amendment

Leon Czolgosz

An assassin that called himself an anarchist. He unintentionally put the US government under a strong and inspiring leader.

United Mine Workers Strike 1902

United Mine Workers (UMW) went on strike for better working conditions, pay increase, reduction in work and recognition for their union

Square Deal

Theodore Roosevelt's 1904 presidential campaign slogan pledging to balance the interests of business, consumers, and labor.

Northern Securities Case

T.R. used the Sherman Antitrust Act to attack a railroad monopoly. Supreme Court ordered the company to dissolve.

Hepburn Act 1906

This increased the power of the ICC so that it could regulate interstate trade and examine the finances of companies requesting a raise in rates.

Upton Sinclair

muckraker who wrote the Jungle to alert the public of the wrongdoing in business and politics

Meat Inspection Act

law that required the federal government to inspect meat shipped across state lines

Pure Food and Drug Act

a 1906 law that requires food and drug makers to list ingredients on packages

Gifford Pinchot

head of the us forest service under roosevelt, who believed that is was possible to make use of natural resources while conserving them

Newlands Act

Congressional response to Theodore Roosevelt in 1902. Washington was to collect money from sales of public lands in western states and use funds for development of irrigation projects

Ballinger Pinchot Affair

showed Taft's weakness on conservation and made Roosevelt an enemy, lost support from progressives

Mann Elkins Act

extended the regulatory powers of ICC to telegraph and telephone companies

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