Cell Cycle, Mitosis and Meiosis Review

Once there was a little cell named Mito. He was a skin cell, where the competition was brutal. Cells were dying and being created every day. Mito was ready to undergo mitosis! His Mitosis supervisor, Dry, was pretty tough. "hey, kid. there ain't nothing special about your cell cycle!" he growled. mito replied proudly, "one day, someone will have a very important science test about me!" That person is me, and maybe you. So here is a review for Mitosis, Interphase, Meiosis, and more! Free of charg…
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haploid
a cell with one set of chromosomes
diploid
a cell with two sets of chromosomes; twice the haploid number
crossing over
when chromosomes in a tetrad swap pieces of each other, leading to genetic diversity
homologous pair
a pair of chromosomes, one from each parent, that have relatively similar structures and gene values
daughter cells
new cells produced by cell division
G1 phase
part of interphase in which the cell undergoes the most growth
M phase
stage of cell cycle in which mitosis and cytokinesis occur
prophase
first & longest phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes become visible
telophase
last phase of mitosis in which the chromatids arrive at the poles, the spindle breaks down and the nuclear envelope reforms.
metaphase I
second stage of meiosis I in which chromosomes line up double file
metaphase II
second stage of mitosis II in which the chromosomes line up across the cell.
Cyclin
proteins that help facilitate the cell cycle
fertilization
creation by the physical union of male and female gametes
mitotic spindle
this guides the DNA to the two sides of the cell during mitosis
gametes
cells produced by meiosis; another name for sex cells
G2 phase
stage of interphase in which the cell prepares for mitosis (m phase)
mitosis
cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes
metaphase
phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell and attach to the mitotic spindle
cytokinesis
process by which the cytoplasm of a cell divides; in an animal cell, it is called furrowing, in a plant cell the cell plate forms
anaphase II
The third phase of meiosis II. The sister chromatids are spearated at their centromeres and pulled to opposite sides of the cell. The number of chromosmes was reduced by half during meiosis I.
cancer
disease in which some of the body's cells multiply uncontrollably
cell cycle
set of events during which the cell grows and divides
chromatin
the messy, unwound form of DNA that is found in the nucleus prior to cell division.
centrioles
organelles that form the mitotic spindle
interphase
period of the cell cycle between cell divisions
S phase
part of interphase in which cell DNA is replicated
meiosis
cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms- creates four new sex cells with a haploid amount of chromosomes
anaphase
phase of mitosis in which the mitotic spindle pulls the sister chromatids to opposite ends of the cell
prophase I
first stage of meiosis I, where tetrads (a set of two tightly bound chromosomes) are formed and may cross over
prophase II
The first phase of meiosis II. Prophase II is identical to mitotic prophase, except that the number of chromosomes was reduced by half during meiosis I.
telophase II
The fourth and final phase of meiosis II. Telophase II is identical to mitotic telophase, except that the number of chromosomes was reduced by half during meiosis. I.