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A carbon atom can form up to four covalent bonds


A carbon atom has six electrons in its outermost shell


The bond between a carbon and hydrogen atom is a polar bond


Oxygen and nitrogen have a stronger electronegativity than carbon (e.g., a strong pull on a shared electron


Bonds between carbon and other atoms are relatively unstable and readily dissociate, resulting in the formation of new molecules.


The carbon backbone of a molecule is made up of a string of carbon atoms held together with either single or double bonds


The carbon backbone of a molecule comes in a variety of shapes: linear, ring-like, or highly branched


Carbon is a relatively large atom allowing it to bind to more atoms than smaller atoms would, thereby making it more versatile


Functional groups help define the properties of macromolecules. The _____ functional group(s) is/are found within amino acids, while carbohydrates contain the _____ functional group(s).

amino & carboxyl // hydroxyl

Monomer of a protein

amino acid

Nucleic acid



fatty acid



Glucose, fructose, c6h12o6


sucrose, maltose, lactose, c12h22o11


cellulose, starch, glycogen


no double bonds within carbon backbone, solid at room temperature, comes from animal and animal products

saturated fatty acid

liquid at room temp, oil,found in plants and plant products,double bonds within carbon backbone, transfat are a synthetic form that has a higher melting point

unsaturated fatty acid

Saturated fats are solid at room temperature


Saturated fats have a higher melting point than unsaturated fats


Saturated fats have one or more double bonds along the carbon backbone


Unsaturated fats are found primarily in animals and animal products


Unsaturated fats have kinks in the hydrogen-carbon chain and therefore the molecules do not lay flat


Trans fats are synthetic saturated fats


Trans fats have a higher melting point than natural unsaturated fats and a lower melting point than natural saturated fats


A gram of fat stores _____ energy than a gram of starch due to ______ within fat molecules relative to starch molecules

more // a higher proportion of C-H bonds

The plasma membrane is made up of a phospholipid bilayer, with the _____________ of the phospholipids_____________.

hydrophilic heads // sticking out toward the interior and exterior of the cell

If two proteins have the same complement of amino acids, what would increase the likelihood that the two proteins would behave differently, e.g., have different functions?

different sequence of the amino acids within the molecules

plays a role in protein synthesis

RNA polymerase

plays a role in muscle contraction / movement


protects again disease


plays a role in digestion and metabolism

hexokinase & lactase

provides support and structure

actin and collagen

facilitates movement of molecules across plasma membranes


double stranded, housed within the nucleus of an animal cell, AT GC


single stranded, AU GC, ribose sugar within the backbone


DNA _______. RNA, on the other hand, ________.

provides the instructions for the specific sequence of amino acids used to build a protein // functions to convert a nucleotide sequence into an amino acid sequence

___ is a polysaccharide that is found primarily in plant cells as a form of energy storage. It is ___ ___ , and as a result is not very soluble in water.

Starch, moderately branched

____ is a polysaccharide primarily stored in muscle tissue. It is ___ _____ allowing hydroxyl side groups to be readily exposed to water in the surrounding tissue, for easy hydrolysis

Glycogen, highly branched

____ is _____ and most organisms lack the necessary enzyme to hydrolize the beta D glucose monomers. It is used primarily for ______ in plants

cellulose, unbranched, structural support

___ are the building blocks of protein. They are made up of a center carbon atom bound positively to a charged ___ group and a negatively charged ___ group and a side chain.

Amino acids, amino group, carboxyl group

____ formed by ______ reactions link amino acids together forming a linear chain.

polypeptides, dehydration

The ____ structure of a protein is the sequence of an amino acids that are attached together by a ____ bond.

primary structure, peptide

In the ____ structure of a protein the polypeptide is folded through the mechanisms of amino acids rotating around bonds folding into an a helix or a b pleated sheet structure and stablized by a ___ bond.

secondary, hydrogen

In the ___ structure of a protein the amino acid side chains of the folded polypeptide interact, forming a commplex _____ shape

tertiary, 3d (three deminsional)

The _____ structure of a protein exists if multiple polypeptides bind together to form a functional protein


A person who sprints for 45 seconds obtains most of their energy from

muscle glycogen

What happens to the amount of muscle glycogen used for energy as exercise continues?

it decreases

After 3 hours of exercise what are the main sources of energy?

blood glucose and plasma free fatty acids

What happens to the amount of plasma free fatty acids used for energy as exercise continues?

they increase

Where are most plasma free fatty acids obtained from?

hydrolisis of stored fat

What type of bonds link individual amino acids together


The helix that forms in a protein chain as a result of hydrogen bonds and other weak forces is an example of

secondary structure

In the stable form of protein, what is generally oriented to the interior of the protein molecule?

hydrophobic portions

When an egg is fried, what happens to the protein in the egg?

protein is denatured

When forming a semi-solid gel such as gelatin, what type of molecule does the process of protein coagulation entrap?


The correct structure of DNA components can be presented as


Which of the following is a characteristic of double-stranded DNA?

2 nanometers in width, 10 base pairs per turn, and 0.34 nanometers per basepair

Which of the following DNA molecules is the most stable?


Doubled-stranded DNA consists of two antiparallel strands, meaning that one strand is oriented in the 5' to 3' direction, while the other is oriented in the 3' to 5' direction.


Asymmetrical spacing of the backbones of the DNA double helix generates major and minor grooves


Asymmetrical spacing of the backbones of the DNA double helix generates major and minor grooves


Molecules that contain the element ___ are considered organic molecules


____ was the first scientist to synthesize an organic molecule. The organic molecule synthesized was____

Wohler, urea

The versatility of carbon to serve as the bacbone for a variety of different molecules is due to

the ability of carbon atoms to form four covalent bonds, the ability of carbon to form covalent bonds with many different types of atoms

____ are molecules that hae the same molecular composition but differ to structure and or bonding association


___ is a storage of polysaccharides commonly found in the cells of animals


In contrast to other fatty acids, essential fatty acids

cannot be synthesized by the organism and are necessary for survival

Phospholipids ae amphipathic, which means they

are composed of a hydrophilic portion and a hydrophillic portion

The monomers of proteins are _____ and these are linked bhy polar covalent bonds commonly referred to as ____

amino acids, polypeptide

The ___ of a nucleotide determines where it is a component of dna or a component of RNA

five carbon sugar

A ___ is a portion of protein with a particular structure and function


With regard to their binding to enzymes, why do enantiomers such as D- and L-glucose have different biological properties?

Enantiomers have different spatial relationships that are mirrors of each other. Therefore one may bind very tightly to an enzyme while the other one might not be recognized at all.

What type of reaction is the reverse of the ones shown here, in which a disaccharide is broken down into two monosaccharides?

the reverse of a dehydration reaction is called a hydrolysis reaction.

Certain types of fats used in baking are called shortenings. They are solid at room temperature. Shortenings are often made from vegetable oils by a process called hydrogenation. What do you think happens to the structure of an oil when it is hydrogenated?

changes them to a saturated fat, causing them to be solid at room temps

When water and oil are added to a test tube, the two liquids form two separate layers (think of oil and vinegar in a bottle of salad dressing). If a solution of phospholipids were added to a mixture of water and oil, where would the phospholipids dissolve?

polar regions would dissolve in the water and the nonpolar regions would dissolve in the oil

How many water molecules would be produced in making a polypeptide that is 72 amino acids long by dehydration reactions?

one less than the number of amino acid in the polypeptide

If the primary structure of Protein 1 in this figure were experimentally altered by the substitution of several incorrect amino acids for the correct ones, would Protein 1 still be able to interact with Protein 2?

no it would lose its fit and not be able to interact with the other protein

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