Photosynthesis, Biology 20, Chapter 6
Terms in this set (95)
A packet of light.
The light-absorbing green-coloured pigment that begins the process of photosynthesis.
A membrane-bound organelle in green plant and algal cells that carries out photosynthesis.
The protein-rich semiliquid material in the interior of a chloroplast.
A disk-shaped sac in the stroma of a chloroplast.
Stacks of tylakoids.
The photosynthetic membrane within a chloroplast that contains light gathering pigment molecules and electron transport chains.
A fluid-filled interior space enclosed by the thylakoid membrane.
A molecule containing three high energy phosphate bonds that acts as the primary energy-transferring molecule in a living organism.
A molecule containing two high-energy phosphate bonds that may be formed by breaking one of the phosphate bonds in ATP.
A compound that accepts one hydrogen atom and two electrons forming NADPH; it is an electron acceptor.
A compound that donates one hydrogen aton and two electrons to another molecule, to reform NADP+; it is an electron donor.
reactions of photosynthesis that use energy from light to produce ATP and NADPH
The process of incorporation CO2 into carbohydrate molecules.
A cyclic set of reactions occurring in the stroma of chloroplasts that fixes the carbon of CO2 into carbohydrate molecules and recycles coenzymes.
The second set of reactions in photosynthesis that do not require light.
A cluster of photosynthetic pigments embedded in a thylakoid membrane of a chloroplast that absorbs light energy.
Electron Transport Chain
A series of progressively stronger electron acceptors; each time an electron is transferred, energy is released.
A reaction in which an atom or molecule loses electrons.
A reaction which an atom or molecule gains electrons.
6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy -> C6H12O6 + 6O2
Formula for Glucose
Where energy is stored in photosynthetic organisms.
Short wavelengths have...
Number of molecules used in the Calvin Cycle?
Carbon dioxide and Water
Raw Materials in photosynthesis?
Molecule of immediate energy?
ATP, NADPH and O2
Products of 'Light-Dependent' reactions?
Chemical reactions where electrons are lost.
What does chlorophyll do to green pigment?.
The pigment able to use light energy.
Where light is absorbed.
Where does the Calvin Cycle occur?
The process of incorporating CO2 into carbohydrate molecules.
What is the chemical process where electrons are gained?
Electron Transport Chain.
A process where energy in electrons in released.
18 ATP and 12 NADPH
One glucose molecule requires _ ATP and _ NADPH.
Sunlight, carbon dioxide and water
Photosynthesis is the pathway used to synthesize carbohydrates from:
Thylakoid lumen to the stroma
Chloroplast ATP synthase are powered by the flow of protons from the
The organism believed to be the first to used different photosystems in a single photosynthetic electron transport chain are the:
Photosynthetic pigments that absorb light from regions of the visible spectrum not absorbed by chlorophyll are
Reactive oxygen species are detoxified by a general category of molecules referred to as
The fluid filled interior compartment of the thylakoid network is referred to as the
carboxylase or an oxygenase
Rubsico can function as
a complex of pigments, proteins and reaction center chlorophylls
main function of photosynthesis
Conversion of light energy to chemical reaction
Oxidized to oxygen in the light.
In green plant photosynthesis, water is
What produces CO2 and consumes ATP?
RuBP is required in what step of the Calvin Cycle
3 Carbon Sugar
What is the product of Calvin Cycle?
the changes in energy level of electron donors during ETC
a yellow/orange pigment that slow the formation of reactive oxygen speices by reducing excess light energy
Cytoplasm of cynobacteria
Where is the stroma derived from?
the break down of water
Where does oxygen come from?
this incorporates CO2 from the atmosphere into an organic molecule
electrons from ____ are used to reduce ______
reduction is affected
What happens when there is no NADPH?
light, energy, and protons
ATP production requires
to minimize damage to membrane
Reactive oxygen species are detoxified ....
Is NADPH oxidized or reduced?
What happens at the ground state at PSII?
When there is more O2 is then CO2 in the atmosphere what occurs?
For every 6CO2 how many triose phosphate is there?
narrow the range of wavelength reflection
RuBP generation requires _____
Because the plant produced accessory pigments.
Why does the plant absorb more wavelengths of light compared to an isolated chlorophyll molecule in the lab?
Most of chlorophyll in the photosystem is used to ______
What is the initial carbon input in the Calvin Cycles?
What is the ultimate source of energy of all living organism
During photorespiration, Carbon _____ during carboxylase reaction
During photorespiration, carbon is _____ during oxygenase reaction
The addition of CO2 to the 5-carbon compound, RuBP, is catalyzed by the enzyme rubisco
NADPH transfers two electrons and one proton; inorganic phosphate is relesed
Regeneration of RuBP
A multistep process, 3-carbon compound are reorganized and combined to produce RuBP
Input of the Calvin Cycle
Output of Calvin Cycle
The first step of the Calvin Cycle, in which carbon dioxide absorbed from the air is affected to a 5-carbon molecule
a reaction in the Calvin Cycle which a molecule gain electrons
The enzyme rubisco is ____ becuse it adds CO2 to ______
the enzyme rubisco ____ because it removes CO2 to ______
5; one 3-carbon and one 2-carbon
The net result of a single rubisco-catalyzed oxygenase event is a ____ -carbon intermediate that quickly converts to ___________ molecules.
How many molecules of RuBP are oxygenated for each molecule of CO2 that is released by photorespiration?
How many 3-carbon intermediates (3-PGA) enter the Calvin cycle for every CO2 that is released by photorespiration?
The portion of the electromagnetic spectrum apparent to our eyes
Specifically configured chlorophyll molecules where light energy is converted into electron transport
rapidly; heat and light
When light is absorbed by chlorophyll in solution, it _________ releases the energy in the form of ____________.
oxidized; excited electron; electron acceptor; reduced
The photosynthetic reaction center becomes ________ when it passes its __________ to the ______________, which is thus ___________.
The reaction center chlorophyll must obtain a replacement electron.
When chlorophyll in solution returns to its ground state via energy release, it is ready to absorb another photon. How is this different in the reaction center chlorophyll in the chloroplast?
The photosystem that energizes electrons with a second input of light energy so they have enough energy to reduce NADP+.
The photosystem that supplies electrons to the beginning of the electron transport chain. When photosystem II loses an electron, it can pull electrons from water.
In the lumen
Where do protons accumulate?
in the lumen
Where would the lowest pH during daylight?
How does protons travel from the lumen to the stroma?
The electron donor that replenishes the PS II reaction center is _______.
cyclic electron transport
An alternative pathway for electrons during the Calvin cycle that increases the production of ATP.
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