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CSET Subtest IV - World Language
Terms in this set (211)
Established the constitutional basis for the educational rights of language minority students.
Brown vs. Board of Education, 1954
Ordered desegregation of schools. Established the principle of equal educational opportunity for all students.
Mendez vs. Westminster (preceded Brown by 9 years)
Ended segregation of Mexican and Mexican American students in Orange County.
Title VI Civil Rights Act, 1964
Prohibited discrimination in federally funded programs. Established the principle of equal opportunity for national origin minority groups.
Bilingual Education Acts of 1968 & 1974. Also Title VII.
(Chacon-Moscone Bilingual-Bicultural Ed. Act, 1974)
Provided supplemental funding for schools to meet special educational needs of LEP students. Didn't specify methods of instruction.
Established transitional bilingual educ. programs to meet the needs of LEP students. Program requirements follow federal guidelines for identification, program placement, and reclassification of students as FEP.
May 25, 1970 Memorandum
Prohibited the denial of access to educational programs because of a student's limited English proficiency.
Equal Educational Opportunity Act, 1974
Provided definition of what constituted denial of equal educational opportunity.
Lau vs. Nichols, 1970
Chinese student against San Francisco SD, states that students didn't receive equal education when taught in language they didn't understand. Result: Requires SD to provide equal access to the core curriculum for students whose primary language is not English.
Castaneda vs. Pickard, 1981
Set the standards for the courts in examining programs for LEP students. To comply with federal law, local SD must have: a pedagogical plan for LEP students, sufficient qualified staff to implement the plan, and a system established to evaluate the program. Required to take appropriate action to overcome language barriers.
Bilingual Education Act, 1981
Strengthened the obligations of SD to LEP.
Proposition 227, 1998
Required SD to dismantle transitional bilingual programs that taught students literacy skills and academic content to LEP students in their L1 while they learned English. However, it had a provision allowing parents to apply for waivers allowing students to continue in Bil. Educ. under certain specified conditions.
Williams vs. State of CA, 2000-2004
Provisions that stated better bilingual education instruction was needed. State settled and is making change throughout the state.
Separate Underlying Proficiency Theory (SUP)
States that L1 proficiency and L2 proficiency are separate and not connected at all. Assumes that skills & content in L1 don't transfer to L2.
Common Underlying Proficiency Theory (CUP)
Indicates that a child acquires a set of skills and implicit metalinguistic knowledge that can be drawn upon when working in another language. Students are learning concepts as they're learning L1, and those concepts are transferable to L2. L1 and L2 are interdependent.
Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS)
The universal aspects of language proficiency required for all native speakers of a language to communicate successfully.
Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP)
Refers to language skills associated with literacy and cognitive development learned through formal instruction.
Instruction in 2 languages for any part of or all of the school curriculum.
Bilingual Bi-cultural Education
Broader scope program as a total educational approach for developing bilingualism in all American children and for nurturing the linguistic resources already possessed by language minorities.
English as a Second Language
Selected for students with low English proficiency and need intensive English instruction. Sets aside time for intensive direct instruction of English skills, fragmented not easily transferred to core curriculum and with low expectations.
English Language Development
Teaches English through academic content, designed for lower levels of language proficiency, emphasis on listening, speaking & early literacy instruction. Organized around themes based on academic standards and content area.
Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English (SDAIE)
Effective for students with higher levels of
English, content area focused with modifications, maintains high expectations. Also known as "sheltered English."
Transitional Bilingual Education
Teaches literacy in students L1, uses L2 teaching methodology, requires structured content area instruction according to students language proficiency until students are competent enough to move into mainstream education.
Early-exit Bilingual Programs
Focus on establishing basic Spanish reading skills in K-1 grades, but then phase out instruction in L1 by the end of 2nd grade.
Late-exit Bilingual Programs
Allows around 40% of classroom teaching in L1 until the end of 4th or 6th grade. Produce better achievement outcomes for ELLs.
Maintenance Bilingual Programs
Follow the phase-in of English as a medium of instruction, but not reduces Spanish instruction. A 50/50 balance in Spanish/English instruction is maintained through 6th grade.
Mainstream Education (with foreign language teaching)
Majority language students learn minority language. Works better if there is high incentive (economic, social) for students to learn language.
Starts with 100% immersion in L2. Uses SDAIE or sheltered instruction as instructional methodology.
Dual Immersion or Two Way Bilingual Immersion
Students with different first languages are grouped so that each learns the other group's language. Promotes true additive bilingualism and biculturalism, enhances cognitive abilities as well as language and academic skills.
Principles of Effective Dual Language Program Design
Scope, sequence, articulation, continuity, and balance.
Teaching for Transfer
Embedded in the design of transition bilingual education programs to support students' acquisition of L1 literacy as foundation for acquisition of L2.
Common terms & labels for Bilingual Education
Dual language instruction, transitional bilingual educ., language maintenance progr., two way or dual immersion, bilingual/bi cultural educ.
Ability to use language system appropriately in any circumstances.
Learning vs. Acquisition Hypothesis
States that we acquire L2 in the same way we acquire our native language, by using it.
Natural Order of Acquisition Hypothesis
Linguistic forms emerge in L2 acquisition in much the same order as they do in L1. This is what makes language assessment possible. It also calls into question the "grammar syllabus."
Inter language Hypothesis
States that the learner naturally develops an interim form of language that is a mixture of L1 and L2 because they fill in with the first language skills where the learner doesn't know the form in L2.
As learners develop skills and competence in L2, they begin to correct and modify their speech and written production to conform to the model speech of native speakers of the target language.
Helps language learners become aware of patterns and rules in the target language so they can self-correct or search their mental banks for forms that follow the rules.
Comprehensible Input Hypothesis
We learn or acquire L2 by connecting it to prior knowledge and known concepts. Language that is not understood is just L2 noise. We can't increase our knowledge of the language by just hearing a stream of sounds and words.
I + 1 Hypothesis
States that teachers should modify their speech & linguistic input to a level of complexity one level beyond the learner's level of competence.
Inform L2 educators about the importance of motivational, psychological, emotional, and interpersonal factors in learning language. High levels of motivation or attitude toward learning L2 appear to be a more reliable predictor of rate and levels of bilingual proficiency.
Affective Filter Hypothesis
Provides insight into the obstacles to L2 learning. Filters such as embarrassment, shyness, or negative attitudes about language learning act as barriers to learning.
Attitude toward learning enhances or inhibits the ability to learn L2. It's related to the learning vs. acquisition theory.
When learning L2 syntax and grammar, as well as discourse, the learners will fill in the blanks with a predictable and logical form based on the rules and patterns of language.
Language is stored in the brain in a story or narrative form based on episodes of real communication.
Theoretical Orientations to L2 Teaching Methods & Approaches
Structural/Linguistic, Cognitive, Affective/Interpersonal, & Functional/Communicative.
Originally used to teach Greek and Latin. Students learn elaborate grammar rules and bilingual lists of words.
Lesson begins with dialogue using target language, material is first presented orally with actions or pictures, L1 is never used, there is no translation, integrates questions, grammar, verbs are used first and systematically conjugated, literature is read and culture is considered an important aspect of learning L2.
Consists of mimicry, memorization of set phrases and over-learning. Abundant use of language laboratories, tapes and visuals and extended pre-reading period. If a student makes an incorrect response, the teachers corrects the student before continuing with the exercise.
Community Language Learning
Patterned upon counseling techniques and adapted to the peculiar anxiety and threat as well as the personal and language problems a person finds in the learning of L2.
Emphasizes the use of real language, in real life situations. Maintains a focus centered around the 4Rs: Reading, Writing, Conversation and Culture. Collaborative learning and peer interaction are important.
Content Based Approach
Use authentic materials, encouraged by selecting a subject or topic matter to grasp students' interest to target language. Descriptive reports on popular media or science are usually supplied.
Total Physical Response
Combines information and skills through the use of the kinesthetic syst. Teacher says commands and students do the action. It can be used to construct and practice vocabulary.
Stresses a means of organizing a language syllabus, emphasizes on breaking down the global concept of language into units of analysis (verbs, pronouns, etc.) The use of particular notions depends on 3 major factors: functions, elements in the situation, and the topic being discussed.
The emphasis is on communicative competence rather than memorizing grammar rules and stressing accuracy.
Discourse Analysis Theory
Linguistic theory that sees language as the understanding and use of linguistic units within sentences.
Language Acquisition Theory
Contends that learning and acquisition of language are two distinct processes, with learning being formal and intentional knowledge about a language.
Used in Argentina, Peru, Chile, Ecuador and other Hispanic countries.
Used frequently in Chile, Cuba, Colombia, and the majority of countries in Latin America.
Functional Categories of Language
Personal, interpersonal, directive, referential and imaginative.
Technique in which words are deleted from a passage of text based according to a word-count formula, or other criteria depending on the instructional or assessment purpose. It helps to identify students' knowledge & understanding of the reading process and vocabulary. It's useful to determine which cueing systems readers effectively use to build meaning.
Stages of L2 Acquisition
1. Pre-Production (0-6 mo.) Silent period.
2. Early Production (6-1yr.) use of single words.
3. Speech Emergence (1-3yrs.) Say simple sentences.
4. Intermediate Fluency (3-5yrs.) Few grammar errors, good comprehension, long/complex sentences.
5. Advanced Fluency (5-7yrs.) Demonstrate native level of proficiency.
Listening & Speaking Skills
Develop fast at the lower levels of proficiency.
Reading & Writing Skills (Literacy)
Develop more gradually in the L2 learner.
Factors to Differentiate Instruction for ELLs
1. English proficiency level
2. Language arts abilities and skills: LSRW
3. Reading level & demands of the text
4. Levels of concept & content learning challenges
Uses of Language Assessment
1. Appropriate dual language &n English Language Dev. program placement.
2. Differentiation of Instruction for ELLs.
3. Diagnosis of language strengths & weaknesses in specified functions & contexts.
4. Detection of systematic errors for direct and explicit instruction.
Proficiency levels according to CA ELD Standards
Emerging, Expanding & Bridging.
Foreign Language Framework
Examines stages of L2 learning, describes 5 dimensions of language proficiency and use, focuses on expected learning outcomes at each stage and provides a basis for differentiating instruction in L2 learning classrooms.
Dimensions of Language Proficiency
Function, Context, Text Type, Accuracy, and Content.
Common Core Standards Challenges for ELLs
* Demand for more rigor without more support for academic progress.
* Focus on informational texts vs. literature that provides cultural knowledge.
* Issues of oral language dev. & language proficiency in relationship to literacy.
* Issues surrounding scheme building, text-based comprehension questions and close reading.
Stages of Cultural Adaptation or Cultural Shock
Honeymoon, Disintegration, Re-integration, Autonomy, and Independence.
The ability to interact with text in reading or writing in order to produce meaning in two languages.
Critical Literacy Approach
Literacy can be used to maintain hegemony/control masses and it can also be a liberator.
Sociocultural Literacy Approach
Ability to develop appropriate cultural meaning from texts.
Construction of Meaning Approach
Idea that readers bring their own meaning to text.
Learning language to function within a social, economic, cultural context, and circumstances.
The conscious and voluntary choice to become proficient in L2.
When the learner wants to learn L2 for practical reasons, often involving monetary or functional incentives.
It comes from the L2 learner's desire to get to know and connect with native speakers and/or to integrate into their society and culture.
A language that is p-art of a person's family or cultural heritage.
When a native language or heritage language is not learned and used.
When a native or heritage language is used and the speaker becomes and remains bilingual.
First Generation-Monolingual Speakers of Native Language
* Grandparents are new arrivals to the US
* Only speak native language
* Only learn enough English for survival & functional purposes
* May be isolated or separated from the dominant soc.
* Maintain ties to their country of origin
Second Generation-Functional Bilingualism
* Born in US or brought here as young children
* Speak Spanish at home & English at school
* Remain bilingual but may become English dominant
* Maintain cultural ties with their parents' culture of origin but also function well in the dominant culture
Third Generation-Receptive Bilingualism
* Born in US but may refer to themselves with an ethnic label
* May not have contact with grandparents who speak the heritage language
* May have a receptive knowledge of the heritage language but do not speak L1
* Are completed assimilated but may practice some cultural traditions
Fourth Generation-Monolingualism & Language Loss
* Monolingual, might or might not use an ethnic or national origin label
* Learn the heritage language only through formal study such as dual language program
* Learn the heritage language to reconnect with their great grandparents' culture
* Are fully assimilated, may affirm or reject their culture roots
Language Loss Factors
* Assimilation into the dominant culture
* Society's negative attitudes about bilingualism
* Young adults need incentives to keep up their use of the heritage language
* Formal language study opportunities may not be available
Language Maintenance Factors
* Children learn the heritage language fully and add the dominant culture's language
* Children form a strong identity with parents' or grandparents' culture
* Frequent contact with people in a Spanish-speaking country
* Bilingual education programs are helpful for language learning and academic achievement
The transitional and developmental language that has many errors as learner develops knowledge of L2. For example, grammar and syntax errors due to contrasts between L1 & L2.
Linguistics Knowledge for Biliteracy and L2 Teachers
Knowledge of linguistics and how language works: Phonology, Morphology, Grammar, Syntax, Semantics, and Pragmatics.
The study of the sound system of a language.
The study of words and how they are formed to convey meaning.
The study of the implicit rules for how to form all possible sentences in a language and convey meaning.
The study of word placement and order.
The study of the relationships between words or word clusters as the concepts or ideas that they symbolize or represent.
The study of uses of language for communicative purposes in different contexts and settings.
Builds on students established and developing knowledge of their L1 in teaching L2. It progresses from language universals that apply generally to all languages into specific features of students L1 and L2. It facilitates transfer through direct instruction and embedded teaching or teachable moments.
Traditional Approaches to Phonics Instruction
Synthetic approaches using part to whole with segmentation and blending of letters into words. Begins with teaching individual letters, letter-sound correspondences. Involve kinesthetic activities and direct instruction.
Making words based on students' developmental level.
Students decode words based on known words or word parts.
Instruction occurs in the context of authentic reading and writing experiences.
Words in English and Spanish that look and sound alike and have the same meaning.
Techniques to Teach Pragmatics in Speech
* Role-playing of scenarios and conversations
* Dialogue construction and practice
* Simulated telephone conversations
* Structured and guided interviews
Group of people recognized as a class on the basis of certain distinctive characteristics such as religion, language, ancestry, culture or national origin.
All human beings create a culture, a pattern of ways to respond to basic needs.
Each culture possesses its own particular traditions, values and ideas. Judgments of what is right or wrong are based on cultural values.
Culturally Responsive Pedagogy
Addresses students' needs for self-esteem and belonging, recognizes and respect culturally influenced modes of learning, gives a positive role to students' funds of cultural and linguistic knowledge, and promotes cross-linguistic as well as cross-cultural learning.
Occurs when immigrants confront discrimination, leading to downward assimilation where immigrants become trapped into lower socio-economic and segregated communities and may lead to adversarial attitudes and lifestyles.
Children who attend schools in both countries at different points in time during their school careers. Their lives and school experiences transcend the border between two neighboring nations. These children tend to have a bicultural identity and maintains their bilingualism for practical and sentimental reasons.
The complex process encompassing the conscious and unconscious contradictory, oppressive responses along a continuum between the primary culture and dominant culture.
Receptive skill: listening, Productive skill: speaking.
Receptive skill: reading, Productive skill: writing
Two languages in a community
Moving back and forth between registers, dialects, or languages.
Difficulty expressing thoughts and feelings verbally.
Changing languages at word level
Effective Biliterary Instruction
Designed and structured to guide and support students as they: learn language, learn about language, and learn through language.
the study of speech sounds
the study of word formation
the way words are put together to form phrases, clauses and sentences
the study of meaning of words and phrases
the basic principles of grammar
productive rule of language
the study of classes of words, their inflections, and their functions and relations in sentences
majority member learning second language without losing first languages
learning language to survive
observable, clearly defined components of language
inner, mental representation of language
outward evidence of language competence
outcome of formal instruction
someone who is equally competent in two languages
someone who does not have total competency in either language
Receptive skill: listening, Productive skill: speaking
Receptive skill: reading, Productive skill: writing
Holistic view of bilingualism
bilingual doesn't equal two monolinguals in one person, can't measure against native speaker. Different languages in different contexts
two languages in a community
Simultaneous language acquisition
acquires both languages at the same time and prior to the age of 3
moving back and forth between registers, dialects, or languages. change languages at phrase level
refers to those people whose experiences are not well represented by their language and therefore have difficulties expressing their thoughts and feelings verbally
decline in speaker's first language proficiency while a second language is being learned
changing languages at word level
foreign words that have become permanent part of recipient language. part of continuum of codeswitching
pejorative term for borrowing between languages
hearing/reading a lesson/passage in one language and the development of the work in another. Promotes more thorough understanding
people who translate and sometimes transform ideas into socially acceptable terms
Bilingual Dual Coding Model
people have two separate language systems for each language then share a separate non-verbal system that is shared by both
IQ tests, force students to converge onto one answer
ability for person to come up with multiple answers to a problem (more creative thinkers)
the ability to think about the nature and functions of language
awareness of social nature and communicative functions of language (when to use which language, etc.). Allows bilinguals to correct errors faster and understand needs of listener
Separate underlying proficiency
idea that languages constitute two "balloons" in the brain and there's only so much room for both of them. Incorrect - languages share
Common underlying proficiency
both languages operate through the same central processing system
idea that the further the child moves to balanced bilingualism, the more likely cognitive advantages exist. 1st threshold: enough proficiency to avoid negative effects.
2nd threshold: enough for advantages to exist
Basic Interpersonal communicative skills
occurs when there are contextual supports and props to support language (functional meaning)
Cognitive/academic language proficiency
context reduced situations: pronunciation, grammar, vocab
learn second language with little pressure to replace/remove first
Subtractive language acquisition
includes pressure to replace or demote first language
language learner is adapting to new culture - degree to which new language is gained depends on degree to which person integrates self into new culture
happens when learner has weak identification with own ethnic group, does not regard their ethnic group as inferior to dominant group, finds their position mobile and wishes to move into "out-group"
type of second language information received when learning language
language is a matter of habit forming; careful control of input by teacher very important
language learning is made possible by acquiring distinct set of speech habits. Lessons should move from simple to complex linguistics
differences between two languages that might pose problems for the teacher/students - was later found that many errors couldn't be explained through a negative transfer from the first to second language
Language Acquisition Device
humans are cognitively wired for language and have universal, abstract nature of rules that underlie competence
language teaching is about conveying meaning, focus on socially appropriate forms of communication; suggests learners need to identify some of their own errors. Implicit rule formation rather than explicit habit
second language acquisition depends on the extent to which first language is developed
what is actually assimilated. more important than input
Personal factors in language acquisition
individual characteristics affect language input: ability, aptitude, attitude, motivation
brain is a complex network of links between information, links are strengthened when repetitively activated
Information processing approach
requires that language sub skills are repeated until they move from being controlled to automatic; difficult to delete.
can be measured in six different ways. need to measure in ways beyond linguistic competence
ability to communicate accurately in different contexts
ability to use appropriate strategies in constructing texts and spoken discourse
ability to use verbal and non-verbal communication strategies to compensate for gaps in language user's knowledge
awareness of sociocultural context in which language concerned is used by native speakers
ability to use particular social strategies to achieve communicative goals, i.e. know when to interrupt, how to initiate conversation
need to emphasize speaking and writing (ability to communicate with others) in addition to input (listening and reading) in the classroom
effect on self-esteem and ego, new cultural reference
Nationality Act of 1906
required that immigrants learn English
Meyer v Nebraska 1923
Supreme Court declared a state law prohibiting the teaching of a foreign language unconstitutional under 14th Amendment. Found that proficiency in other language was not "injurious to health or morals of child
Mendez v Westminster 1947
federal case that determined segregation of Mexican and Mexican-American students in Orange County was unconstitutional
National Defense and Education Act of 1958
promoted foreign language acquisition due to Cold War; fear that US wouldn't be able to compete in international world
Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965
Ralph Yarborough introduced Bilingual Education Act as an amendment. Enacted in 1968. Indicated that bilingual programs were part of the federal education system.
Lau v Nichols 1970
Chinese student against San Francisco School District, said that students didn't receive equal education when taught in language they don't understand. Result: ESL classes, English tutoring and bilingual education for English Language Learners
Castaneda v Pickard 1978
Castaneda argued that Texas school district was violating his children's rights by not offering them bilingual education to help them overcome their language barriers. Decision: district had to provide bilingual education to help students overcome hurdles
Transitional bilingual education
authorized by Congress in 1978, allowing native language to be used only as much as necessary to develop English skills
Educate America Act of 1994
major education reform. set high standards for immigrant communities and continued federal support for bilingual programs. acknowledged benefits of bilingual education
Williams v State of California 2000
plaintiffs sued the state to complain about appalling conditions of public schools. included specific provisions state better bilingual education instruction was needed. State settled and is making changed throughout the state
Weak Models of Bilingual Education
goal: assimilation. contain bilingual kids but are barely bilingual in nature
minority language student taught entirely in majority language, first language is replaced. Students cannot develop cognitively
Submersion with pull-out classes
minority students in submersion programs but are pulled out to have ESL lessons. Students fall behind on classroom content and seen as remedial
Sheltered English instruction
students are taught with simplified vocab
minority language speakers are denied access to programs/schools
Transitional Bilingual Education
most supported by VII funds. students are temporarily allowed to use native tongue until they are competent enough to move into mainstream education
Early exit bilingual education
two years maximum in mother tongue
Late exit bilingual education
allows around 40% of classroom teaching in the mother tongue until the 6th grade
Mainstream Education (with foreign language teaching)
majority language students learn minority language. works better if there is high incentive (economic, social) for students to learn language
a language minority separates from the language majority in order to protect their language
aim is to be bilingual and bicultural without loss of achievement. form depends on when child begins.
starts with 100% immersion in second language, reducing after 2-3 yrs to 80% for next 3-4 yrs, then ending junior schooling with apx. 50% immersion
apx 50% immersion throughout infant and junior schooling
Immersion v Submersion
Immersion: optional, thrives on conviction, students generally start with same lack of experience in second language, additive bilingualism.
Developmental Maintenance and Heritage Language
when children use their home language as a means of instruction with goal of full bilingualism. native language protected and developed alongside English. minority language used 50%+ of the time. Mostly elementary schools
Dual Language education
when equal numbers of minority and majority language students are in the same classroom. aim is to produce balanced bilinguals. language compartmentalization
the ability to interact with text in reading or writing in order to produce meaning
Functional Literacy Approach
simply reading and writing so one can operate in society (usu. low level), reading and writing seen as separate skills
Whole Language Approach
Literacy: learning to read/write naturally for a purpose, for meaningful communication and for inherent pleasure. Reading and writing seen as connected, demands process of learning is interesting and relevant to student
Construction of Meaning Approach
idea that readers bring their own meaning to text
Sociocultural Literacy Approach
ability to develop appropriate cultural meaning from texts
Critical Literacy Approach
literacy can be used to maintain hegemony/control masses and it can also be a liberator
skills in literacy of primary language can be transferred to second language
Proposition 227 of 1998
essentially wanted to end bilingual education, only leaving sheltered English programs. Largely decreased enrollment in bilingual education programs, but still some parents/schools could opt in to bilingual
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
CSET world language: Subtest IV
CSET Spanish Subtest IV
CSET LOTE IV: WORLD LANGUAGES
CSET World Languages IV: Instruction
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