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AP Psychology: Chapter 2-Brain and Neural Communication
Terms in this set (57)
a neurotransmitter that enables learning and memory, and also triggers muscle contraction.
A neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon. The action potential is generated by the movement of positively charged atoms in and out of channels in the axon's membrane.
a pair of endocrine glands just above the kidneys. Secrete hormones epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline) helping to arouse the body in times of stress.
Two lime bean-sized neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion.
impairment in language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca's area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke's area (impairing understanding)
Areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involvde in primary motor or sensory functions; rather they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking.
Autonomic Nervous System
the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs. -This controls automatic functions. The sympathetic division arouses; its parasympathetic division calms.
the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands.
A branch of psychology concerned with the links between biology and behavior.
The oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull;is responsible for automatic survival functions.
Controls language expression- as area of the frontal lobe, usually in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech.
Central Nervous System
The brain and the spinal cord.
The "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem; its functions include processing sensory input an coordinating movement output and balance
the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information processing center.
The large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them
the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body.
an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface. These waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp.
the body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream.
"morphine within"- natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked in pain control and to pleasure.
fMRI (Functional magnetic resonance imaging.)
A technique for revealing blood flow and therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans. MRI scans show brain anatomy. fMRI scans show brain function.
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead; involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments.
Glial Cells (Glia)
cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons.
Chemical messages, mostly those manufactured by the endocrine glands, that are produced in one tissue and affect another.
A neural structure lying below the thalamus; it directs several maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temperature), helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion.
central nervous system neurons that internally communicate and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs.
Tissue destruction- a brain lesion is a naturally or experimentally caused destruction of brain tissue.
a doughnut-shaped system of neural structures at the border of the brainstem and cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions such as fear and aggression and drives such as those for food and sex. Includes: Hypothalamus, amygdala and hippocampus.
The base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing.
A neural center located in the limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage.
an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements.
Neurons that carry outgoing information from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands.
MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissue; allows us to see structures within the brain.
a layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next.
neural "cables" containing many axons. These bundled axons, which are part of the peripheral nervous system, connect the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs.
The body's speedy, electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous system.
Interconnected neural cells. With experience, networks can learn, as feedback strengthens or inhibits connections that produce certain results. Computer simulations of neural networks show analogous learnging.
a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system.
chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons. When released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse.
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head; includes the visual areas, which receive visual information from the opposite visual field.
Parasympathetic Nervous System
The division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy.
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; receives sensory input for touch and body position.
Peripheral Nervous System
The sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the res of the body.
PET (Positron Emission Tomography) Scan
a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task.
The endocrine system's most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands.
The brains capacity for modification, as evident in brain reorganization following damage (especially in children) and in experiments on the effects of experience on brain development.
A simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee-jerk response.
A nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal.
The area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations.
Neurons that carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the central nervous system.
Somatic Nervous System
The division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles. Also called the Skeletal Nervous System.
a condition in which the two hemispheres of he brain are isolated by cutting the connecting fibers (mainly those of the corpus callosum) between them.
Sympathetic Nervous System
The division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations.
the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron. The tiny gap at this junction is called synaptic gap or cleft.
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; includes the auditory areas, each of which receives auditory information primarily from the opposite ear.
The brain's sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla.
The level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse.
Controls language reception- a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe.
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