Abd al-Hamid II
Ottoman Sultan who accepted a reform constitution, but then quickly suppressed it, ruling as a reactionary autocrat for the rest of his long rein.
The collapse of China's imperial order, officially at the hands of organized revolutionaries but for the most part under the weight of the troubles that had overwhelmed the government for the previous half-century.
Feudal lords of Japan who retained substantial autonomy under the Tokugawa shogunate and only lost their social preeminence in the Meiji restoration
Leader of the Taiping rebellion; converted to specifically Chinese form of Christianity; attacked traditional Confucian teachers of Chinese elite
Term commonly used to describe areas that were dominated by Western powers in the 19th century but that retained their own governments and a measure of independence, e.g., Latin America and China.
The restoration of the Emperor Meiji to power in Japan, overthrowing the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868.
A commodore in the American navy. He forced Japan into opening its doors to trade, thus brining western influence to Japan while showing American might. influenced by the idea of manifest destiny
Two Wars fought between the Chinese and the British in which China tried to restrict the importation of foreign goods. Especially Opium. China had lost both wars and would have to make major concessions.
Russo-Japanese War, 1904- 1905
Ending in a Japanese victory, this war established Japan as a formidable military competitor in East Asia and precipitated the Russian Revolution of 1905.
armed retainers of the Japanese feudal lords, famed for their martial skills and loyalty; in the Tokugawa shogunate, the samurai gradually became and administrative elite, but they did not lost their special privileges until the Meiji Restoration
China's program of internal reform (effort to handle the effects of imperialism) in the 1860s and 1870s, based on vigorous application of Confucian principles and limited borrowing from the West (military, factories). It failed, leading to the Boxer Rebellion and the end of the Qing Dynasty.
Sultan who ruled Ottoman Empire from 1789 to 1807; aimed at improving administrative efficiency and building a new army and navy; toppled by Janissaries in 1807
"Sick Man of Europe"
The phrase is used to describe economic poverty in a European country. This term was coined when the Ottoman empire was in decline and increasingly began to lose territory to the Europeans through defeats in battle.
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
massive chinese rebellion that devested much of the country between 1850 and 1864. Base on millennium teachings of Hong Xiquan
Important reform measures undertaken in the Ottoman Empire beginning in 1839; the term "Tanzimat" means "reorganization"
treaties between China and the Western powers after the Opium War that vastly favored the Western powers
Group of would-be reformers in the mid-19th century Ottoman Empire that included lower-level officials, military officers, and writers; they urged the extension of Westernizing reforms to the political system.