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23 terms

Exam II: Clinical IV Therapy

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crystalloids, colloids, blood products
types of IV products
tonicity
the number if particles or amount of substance in fluid...effective osmolality
isotonic
IV fluid that is similar to blood. 240-340 mOsm/L. expands only ECF. great for fluid replacement for a patient with ECF volume deficit. lactated ringers and NS
hypotonic
IV fluid that is less osmotic than blood....less than 240 mOsm/L. provides more water than electrolytes. osmosis from ECF to ICF. Once equilibrium is reached, both compartments have been expanded....0.45 NaCl
hypertonic
IV fluid that is more osmotic than blood....more than 340 mOsm/L, initially raises ECF and expands it. requires frequent monitoring (BP, lung sounds, and serum sodium levels)....D5NaCl and TPN
colloids
protein and nonprotein IV fluids used for more emergent things. this increases the blood volume. ex of protein is albumin, and nonprotein example is starch and dextrans.
basal
the setting on a PCA pump that allows a continuous cycle of Analgesics to be administered....for ex. while patient is sleeping, doses will be given, so the patient doesn't need to play catch-up.
72 hours
the amount of time that an IV should last before the site is changed. but with TPN is only 24 hours. Blood is changed after 2 units.
saline lock
may be referred to as a hep lock or peripheral lock. this is the process of creating positvie pressure in the IV catheter with saline in order to prevent occlussion at the IV site. there is no running IV
phlebitis
inflammation of a vein related to chemical or mechanical irritation. red along vein, warm, tender
infiltration
accumulation of nonvesicant solution or medication into surrounding tissue. edema, leaking, discomfort/coolness, decreased IV flow
extravasation
inadvertant administration of vesicant solution or medication into surrounding tissues....can cause tissue death. blistering, inflammation, and necrosis of tissue
thrombophlebitis
presence of a clot plus inflammation of the vein. symptoms can include: localized pain, redness, warmth, swelling
circulatory overload
the result of infusing too much fluid. symptoms: edema, dyspnea, cough, wheezing or crackles in the lungs, S3 (Tennessee), distended neck veins
IVP
need to check the compatibility with the IV fluid that is infusing,
whole blood
rbc + plasma
Packed red blood cells
oxygen carrying and blood volume
leukocyte poor PRBC's
wbc are removed from prbc in order to decrease reactions.
albumin
blood expanding proteins
gamma globulins
component of the blood that gives you antibodies. ex. passive immunity vs. measels or Hep
id band, sticker, sheet
details of administering blood that need to be verified prior to procedure
350 cc
the volume of one bag of blood, roughly
bacterial, allergic, hemolytic, fluid overload
reactions that can occur during blood transfusions. the first 5-15 min, go 75 cc/hr. after 15 min increase to 125/150 cc/hr if not reaction. check vitals. if temp increases by 2 F/ 1 C, indication of reaction