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41 terms

Morphology Erythrocytes

Erythrocytes Section 2, Lecture 1
size of rbc for human
~8um in diameter
size of rbc for dog
~7um in diameter
size of rbc for elephant
~9.4um in diameter
size of rbc for musk dear
~2.5um in diameter
size of rbc for salamander
~80um in diameter
morphological variation of rbc
erythrocytes are larger in the lower orders of animals
mammalian erythrocytes
mature erythrocytes in mammals are biconcave discs except in camellidae
biconcave disc is represented as
central pallor
mature erythrocytes in non-mammals are
oval/ellipsoidal cells
normal canine rbc
relatively large, uniform, biconcave discs with significant central pallor
small # polychromatophillic observed in healthy, occasional nucleated rbc and howell-jolly bodies seen in healthy
canine rbc life span
varies from 110-120 days
normal feline rbc
smaller ~5.8um and more variable in size and shape and have little to no central pallor
small # polychromatophillic observed in healthy, occasional nucleated rbc and howell-jolly bodies seen in healthy
some degree of rouleaux formation
feline rbc life span
varies from 65-76 days
normal bovine rbc
size ~5.5um and lack central pallor
polychromatophils released in response to anemia
crenation is common artifact
bovine rbc life span
one of the longest 160 days
normal equine rbc
size ~5.7um and lack central pallor
healthy often display prominent rouleaux formation
polychromatophils not observed, occasional howell-jolly bodies are observed
equine rbc life span
varies from 140-150 days
normal porcine rbc
sizes 6.0um and central pallor may be absent or variable
rouleaux formation is characteristic and sharp-pointed crenation is common artifact
Polychromasia, nucleated erythrocytes, and RBCs with Howell-Jolly bodies are normal in piglets and in growing swine up to 8 months of age and during anemia in remission at any age
porcine rbc life span
average is 70-98 days
normal ovine rbc
size 4.5um and have limited central pallor
Slight anisocytosis and poikilocytosis is normal
Crenation is a common artifact
Polychromasia and basophilic stippling of immature erythrocytes represent the normal response to blood loss or hemolytic disease
Nucleated RBCs and Howell-Jolly bodies are commonly found in peripheral blood during anemia in remission
ovine rbc life span
average is 150 days
normal caprine rbc
smallest size 3.2um, have limited central pallor and slight to moderate anisocytosis is normal
Marked poikilocytosis can be a normal feature in blood of some goats and is especially prominent in kids
Goats do not display a prominent reticulocytosis in response to an anemia and
lack polychromasia in peripheral blood in health
caprine rbc life span
average 125 days
normal camallidae rbc
small, flat, oval-shaped and lack central pallor
The MCHC in llamas is significantly higher than seen in other species and ranges from 40-50 g/dl
A small degree of anisocytosis and poikolocytosis may be observed in healthy animals
camallidae rbc life span
average is 60 days
normal avian rbc
large, nucleated, and elliptical in shape
Most birds display a mild degree of polychromasia in health; this is most prominent in smaller birds (caged or aviary birds) which have a higher metabolic rate.
avian rbc life span
average is 35 days
variation of red blood size on a blood smear
most often associated with marcrocytosis due to a regenerative response or microcytosis due to nutritional deficiencies
Larger than normal RBCs
Increased mean corpuscular volume (MCV)
May exhibit polychromasia and represent reticulocytes
Can occur in B12 and folic acid deficiency anemias and neoplasia
Smaller than normal RBCs
Decreased mean corpuscular volume (MCV)
Observed in iron and pyridoxine deficiency anemias
describe variation of red blood staining that gives a mixture of bluish red cells
bluish red cell are generally large and represent reticulocytes.
blue color is due to residual RNA
Polychromasia is associated with increased erythropoietic activity.
appearance of increased central pallor with a thin rim of cytoplasm
Due to a reduction of the hemoglobin in the cell
in common domestic animal species it occurs only in the context of chronic iron deficiency anemia and is recognized most frequently in dogs. Acute iron deficiency is seen most frequently in young pigs.
red blood cells with abnormal shape for the species from which the blood was obtained
some have fairly specific diagnostic significance, while other forms are very non-specific
certain conditions will produce a specific poikilocyte and should be reported using the specific term (e.g., acanthocyte, keratocyte, etc.)
leptocytes (target cells)
red cells with a "lump" of hemoglobinized cytoplasm within the area of normal central pallor causing them to resemble a "bullseye" target, also called codocytes
formed when there is an increased surface to volume ratio
young RBCs, as a normal feature have excess membrane relative to mature cells
observed in chronic debilitating diseases and
red cells which have assumed the form of a sphere rather than the normal discoid shape
appear on routine blood films as cells that are smaller and more dense than normal red cells of the species and have a reduced central pallor
moderate to marked spheroytosis is diagnostic of IHA
spherocytes are also seen in
-fragmentation anemias
-oxidative injury to red blood cells
-coral snake envenomation
-pyruvate kinase deficiency in Basenjis
-disorders associated with abnormal macrophage function (hemophagocytic syndrome, malignant histiocytosis)
basophilic stippling
spontaneous aggregation of ribosomal RNA in the cytoplasm of erythrocytes, aggregates stain basophilic with Wright's stain
seen as a feature of regenerative anemia, especially in ruminants, but also in dogs and cats.
can occur in absence of anemia in animals with lead poisoning
howell-jolly bodies
small fragments of non-functional nuclear material which were not extruded as the cell left the bone marrow
not usually observed in dogs and ruminants, numbers increase in regenerative anemias in these and other species
In normal cats and horses (non-sinusoidal spleens), and in any species with compromised or absent splenic function, low numbers are seen in the blood of non-anemic patients.
heinz bodies
AKA Schmauch bodies are formed from the coalescence of precipitated hemoglobin that has resulted from oxidation of exposed sulfhydryl groups on the hemoglobin molecule
heinz body hemolytic anemia
Caused by
toxins-onions, wilted red maple leaves
drugs-ace, vit k, methylene blue
inherited disorders-enzyme or mineral deficiencies that affect pathways that guard against oxidant injury
erythrocyte refractile bodies
term usually used to describe Heinz bodies in the erythrocytes of cats. Sometimes restricted in definition to the smaller Heinz bodies that are normally found in up to 10% of feline erythrocytes, as distinct from larger bodies associated with hemolytic anemia.