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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. learning
  2. Behavior modification
  3. response contingency
  4. conditioned reinforcer
  5. variable-ratio schedule
  1. a a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its assocation with a primary reinforcer; also known as secondary reinforcer
  2. b relationship that occurs when a consequence is dependant on the organisms emitting the desired behavior
  3. c in operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses
  4. d A technique that brings about therapeutic change in behavior through the use of secondary reinforecers
  5. e a relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience.

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. In classical conditioning ,, learning that occurs when a CS is paired with an unpleasant US that leads the organism to try to avoid the CS
  2. decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner
  3. Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely
  4. the TIMING of the response (since the previous reinforcer) determines reinforcement; the number of responses made during the interval does not matter; LOWER rates of RESPONDING than ratio schedules.
  5. any stimulus such as a stop sign or a doorknob that provides the organism with a cue for making a certain response in order to obtain reinforcement

5 True/False questions

  1. positive reinforcementincreasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli (unpleaseant event), such as shock. A negative reinforcer is any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response. (Note: negative reinforcement is not punishment

          

  2. Biological preparednesA built in readiness for certain conditioned stimuli to elicit particualr conditioned responses , so less conditioning (training ) is necessary to produce learning

          

  3. extinctionthe diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus does not follow a conditioned stimulus; occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced

          

  4. negative punishmentincreasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli (unpleaseant event), such as shock. A negative reinforcer is any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response. (Note: negative reinforcement is not punishment

          

  5. discriminationin classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus