48 terms

APES Friedland Chapter 12 Vocab Hug

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Fossil Fuel
fuel derived from biological material that became fossilized millions of years ago
Nonrenewable Energy Resource
an energy source with a finite supply, primarily the fossil fuels and nuclear fuels
Nuclear Fuel
fuel derived from radioactive materials that give off energy
Commercial Energy Source
an energy source that is bought and sold
Subsistence Energy Source
an energy source gathered by individuals for their own immediate needs
Energy Carrier
something that can move and deliver energy in a convenient, usable form to end users
Turbine
a device with blades that can be turned by water,wind,steam, or exhaust gas from combustion that turns a generator in an electricity-producing plant
Electrical Grid
a network of interconnected transmission lines that joins power plants together and links them with end users of electricity
Combined Cycle
a power plant that uses both exhaust gases and steam turbines to generate electricity

Natural gas is combusted, and the combustion products turn a gas turbine. In addition, the waste heat from this process boils water, which turns a conventional steam turbine.
Capacity
the max. electrical output (in reference to an electricity-generating plant)
Capacity Factor
the fraction of time a power plant operates in a year

most plants at 0.9
Cogeneration
the use of fuel to generat electricity and produce heat. (also known as "combined heat and power")
Coal
a solid fuel formed primarily from the remains of trees, ferns, and other plant materials preserved 280-360 million years ago
Peat (coal)
partially decayed plant matter found in bogs
Lignite (coal)
compressed peat
Sub-bituminous/Bituminous (coal)
compressed ligmite
Anthracite
the cleanest-burning coal; almost pure carbon, compressed bituminous
Petroleum
a fossil fuel that occurs in underground deposits, composed of liquid mix of hydrocarbons, water, and sulfur, formed by phytoplankton millions of years ago
Crude Oil
liquid petroleum removed from the ground (heat it to make diff. substances ex: gassoline, asphalt, butane)
Natural Gas
a gas 80-95% methane (CH_4) and 5-20% ethane, propane, and butane. (cleanest of fossil fuels; used primarily for electricity generation, and industrial processes; compressed can be used for vehicles but pipeline transport.)
Liquified Petroleum Gas
similar to natural gas, but in liquid form (can be used as fuel &transported in trucks)
Oil Sands
slow-flowing, viscous deposits of bitumen mixed w/ sand, water, and clay
Bitumen
a degraded petroleum that forms when petroleum migrates to the surface of Earth and is modified by bacteria
CTL(coal to liquid)
the process of converting solid coal into liquid fuel, emits high levels of greenhouse gas
Energy Intensity
the energy used per unit of gross domestic product
Hubbert Curve
A bell-shaped curve representing oil use and projecting both when world oil production will reach a max. and when the world will run out of oil
Peak Oil
the point at which half of the total oil supply is used
Fission
a nuclear reaction in which a neutron strikes a relatively large atomic nucleus, which then splits into two or more parts, releasing additional neutrons and energy in the form of heat
Fuel Rod
a cylindrical tube that encloses nuclear fuel with a nuclear reactor
Control Rod
a cylindrical device inserted b/t the fuel rods in a nuclear reactor to absorb excess neutrons and slow or stop the fission reaction
Radioactive Waste
nuclear fuel that can no longer produce enough heat to be useful in a power plant but continues to emit radioactivity
Becquerel (Bq)
unit that measures the rate at which a sample of radioactive material decays; 1Bq= decay of 1 atom or nucleus per second
Curie
unit of measure for radiation; 1Curie= 37billion decays per second
Nuclear Fission
a reaction that occurs when lighter nuclei are forces together to produce heavier nuclei
Energy Efficiency
The percentage of energy put into a system that does useful work
Energy Quality
The ease with which an energy source can be used for work
Primary Source of Energy
coal, oil, natural gas
Secondary Source of Energy
conversion of primary source of energy
Largest Coal Reserves
USA, Russia, China, India
Flare
burning off the natural gas under controlled conditions to prevent an explosion while extracting petrolium
Refined Oil
petroleum is burned for different lengths of time to create different compounds, tar and asphalt, gasoline, diesel, and kerosene
Barrels
how oil production is measured
Top Petroleum Countries
Saudi Arabia, Russia, the United States, Iran, China, Canada, and Mexico
Two Largest Natural Gas Uses
electricity generation and industrial processes
Compressed Natural Gas
Methane, compressed in tank in back of vehicle, 80% decrease in Carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide emissions
LPG
liquefied petroleum gas
Nuclear Fusion
2 isotopes of light elements (H) forced together at high temperatures till they fuse to form a heavier nucleus. Expensive, break even point not reached yet
fracking
hydraulic fracturing-using pressurized fluid to create fractures in rock and release natural gas or petroleum

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