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Josiah Strong

American clergyman who preached Anglo-Saxon superiority and called for stronger U.S. missionary effort overseas

Alfred Thayer Mahan

American naval officer who wrote influential books emphasizing sea power and advocating a big navy

Richard Olney

Belligerent U.S. secretary of state who used the Monroe Doctrine to pressure Britain in the Venezuelan boundary crisis

Queen Liliuokalani

Native Hawaiian ruler overthrown in a revolution led by white planters and aided by U. S. troops

Grover Cleveland

American president who refused to annex Hawaii on the grounds that the native ruler had been unjustly deposed

"Butcher" Weyler

Spanish general whose brutal tactics against Cuban rebels outraged American public opinion

William R. Hearst

Vigorous promoter of sensationalistic anti-Spanish propaganda and eager advocate of imperialistic war

William McKinley

President who initially opposed war with Spain but eventually supported U.S. acquisition of the Philippines

George E. Dewey

Naval commander whose spectacular May Day victory in 1898 (in the Philippines) opened the doors to American imperialism in Asia

Theodore Roosevelt

Imperialist advocate, aggressive assistant navy secretary, Rough Rider

Emilio Aguinaldo

Leader of the Filipino insurgents who aided Americans in defeating Spain and taking Manila

Leonard Wood

Commander in Spanish-American War who organized the efficient American military government of Cuba

William James

Harvard philosopher and one of the leading anti-imperialists opposing U.S. acquisition of the Philippines

William Jennings Bryan

Leading Democratic politician whose intervention narrowly tipped the Senate vote in favor of acquiring the Philippines in 1899

Walter Reed

American doctor who led the medical efforts to conquer yellow fever during U. S. occupation of Cuba

Our Country: Its Possible Future and Its Present Crisis

Book written by a Protestant minister that proclaimed the superiority of Anglo-Saxon civilization

Samoan Islands

Remote Pacific site of a naval clash between the United States and Germany in 1899


South American nation that nearly came to blows with the United States in 1892 over an incident involving the deaths of American sailors

Monroe Doctrine

The principle of American foreign policy invoked by Secretary of State Olney to justify American intervention in the Venezuelan boundary dispute

Pearl Harbor

Valuable naval base acquired by the United States from the Hawaiian government in 1887

yellow journalism

Term for the sensationalistic and jingoistic pro-war journalism practiced by W. R. Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer


American battleship sent on a "friendly" visit to Cuba that ended in disaster and war

Teller Amendment

Amendment to the declaration of war with Spain that stated the United States would grant Cubans their independence after the war

Manila Bay (in the Philippines)

Site of the dramatic American naval victory that led to U. S. aquistion of rich, Spanish-owned Pacific islands

Rough Riders

Colorful volunteer regiment of the Spanish-American War led by a militarily inexperienced by politically influential colonel

Puerto Rico

The Caribbean island conquered from Spain in 1898 that became an important American colony

Anti-Imperialist League

Group that battled against American colonization of the Philippines, which included such influential citizens as Mark Twain and Andrew Carnegie

Insular Cases

Supreme Court cases of 1901 that determined that the U.S. Constitution and bill of rights did not apply in colonial territories under the American flag

Platt Amendment

American-imposed restriction written into the constitution of Cuba that guaranteed American naval bases on the island and declared that the United States had the right to intervene in Cuba

Yellow Fever

Deadly tropical disease conquered during the Spanish-American War by Dr. Walter Reed and other American medical researchers

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