58 terms

Campbell BIology Concepts and Connections Chapter 8

the basis of cellular reproduction and inheritance
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anaphase
the third subphase of mitosis, in which the chromatids of each chromosome have separated and the daughter chromosomes are moving to the poles of the cell
anchorage dependence
the requirement that to divide, a cell must be attached to the substratum
asexual reproduction
a type of reproduction involving only one parent that produces genetically identical offspring by budding or by the division of a single cell or the entire organism into two or more parts
autosome
a chromosome that is not directly involved in determining sex, as opposed to a sex chromosome
benign tumor
a mass of abnormal cells that remains at the site of origin
binary fission
the type of cell division by which prokaryotes reproduce. Each dividing daughter cell recieves a copy of the single parental chromosome
cancer cells
do not have a properly functioning cell-cycle system; instead, they divide excessively and can invade other tissues of the body
carcinomas
cancers that originate in the external or internal coverings of the body
cell cycle
an ordered sequence of events in the life of a eukaryotic cell, from its origin in the division of a parent cell until its own division into two; composed of the M, G1, S, and G2 phases
cell cycle control system
a cyclically operating set of molecured in the cell that triggers and coordinates key events in the cell cycle
cell division
the reproduction of cells
cell plate
a double membrane across the midline of a dividing plant cell, between which the new cell wall forms during cytokinesis
centromere
the centralized region joining two sister chromatids
centrosome
material present in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells, important during cell division; the microtubule-organizing center
chiasma
(plural, chiasmata) the x-shaped, microscopically visible region representing homologous chromatids that have exchanged genetic meterial through crossing over during meiosis
chromatin
the complex of DNA and proteins that makes up a eukaryotic chromosome. When the cell is not dividing, chromatin exists as a mass of very long, thin fibers that are not visible with a light microscope
chromosome
a threadlike, gene-carrying structure found in the nucleus. Each chromosome consists of one very long DNA molecule and associated proteins.
cleavage furrow
the first sign of cleavage in an animal cell; a shallow groove in the cell surface near the old metaphase plate
crossing over
the reciprocal exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromatids during synapsis of meiosis I
cytokinesis
the division of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells immediately after mitosis
deletion
(1) a deficiency in a chromosome resulting from the loss of a fragment through breakage. (2) A mutational loss of one or more nucleotide pairs from a gene
density-dependent inhibition
the phenomemon observed in normal animal cells that caused them to stop dividing when they come in contact with one another
diploid cell
a cell containing two sets of chromosomes (2n), one set inherited from each parent
Down syndrome
a human genetic disease resulting from having an extra chromosome 21, characterized by mental retardation and heart and respiratory defects
duplication
an aberration in chromosome structure resulting from an error in meiosis or mutagens; duplication of a portion of a chromosome resulting from fusion with a fragment from a homologous chromosome
fertilization
the union of haploid gametes to produce a diploid zygote
gamete
a haploid cell such as an egg or sperm. gametes unite during sexual reproduction to produce a diploid zygote
genetic recombination
the general term for the production of offspring with new combinations of traits inherited from the two parents
genome
the complete complement of an organism's genes; an organism's genetic material
growth factor
a protein that must be present in the extracellular environment (culture medium or animal body) for the growth and normal development of certain types of cells
haploid cell
a cell containing only one set of chromosomes (n)
homologous chromosomes
chromosome pairs of the same length, centromere position, and staining pattern that possess genes for the same characters at corresponding loci. One homologous chromosome is inherited from the organism's father, the other from the mother
interphase
the period in the cell cycle when the cell is not dividing. Duringg interphase, cellular metabolic activity is high, chromosomes and organelles are duplicated, and cell size mau increase. Interphase accounts for 90% of the cell cycle
inversion
an aberration in chromosome structure resulting from an error in meiosis or from mutagens; specifically, reattachment of a chromosomal fragment to the chromosome from which the fragment originated, but in a reverse orientation
karyotype
a method of organizing the chromosomes of a cell in relation to number, size, and type
leukemia
a type of cancer of the blood-forming tissues, characterized by an excessive production of white blood cells and an abnormally high number of them in the blood; cancer of the bone marrow that produces leukocytes
life cycle
the sequence of life stages leading from the adults of one generation to the adults of the next
locus (plural, loci)
a particular place along the length of a certain chromosome where a given gene is located
lymphomas
cancers of the tissues that form white blood cells
malignant tumor
a cancerous tumor that is invasive enough to impair functions of one or more organs
meiosis
a two-stage type of cell division in sexually reproducing organisms that reults in cells with half the chromosome number of the orignial cell
metaphase
the second subphase of mitosis, in which the spindle is complete and the chromosomes, attached to microubules at their kinetochores, are all aligned at the metaphase plate
metastasis
the spread of cancer cells to locations distant from their original site
mitosis
a process of nuclear division in eukaryotic cells conventionally divided into four stages: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. Mitosis conserves chromosome number by equally allocating replicated chromosomes to each of the daughter nuclei
mitotic phase
The phase of the cell cycle that includes mitosis and cytokinesis
mitotic spindle
An assemblage of microtubules and associated proteins that is involved in the movements of chromosomes during mitosis
nondisjunction
An accident of meiosis or mitosis, in which the members of a pair of homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids fail to move apart properly
prophase
The first subphase of mitosis, in which the chromatin is condensing and the mitotic spindle begins to form, but the nucleolus and nucleus are still intact
sarcomas
Cancers that arise in tissues that support the body, such as bone and muscle
sex chromosomes
One of the pair of chromosomes responsible for determining the sex of an individual
sexual reproduction
A type of reproduction in which two parents give rise to offspring that have unique combinations of genes inherited from the gametes of the two parents
sister chromatids
Replicated forms of a chromosome joined together by the centromere and eventually separated during mitosis or meiosis II
somatic cell
Any cell in a multicellular organism except a sperm or egg cell
telophase
The final subphase of mitosis, in which daughter nuclei are forming and cytokinesis has typically begun
translocation
(1) An aberration in chromosome structure resulting from an error in meiosis or from mutagens; specifically, attachment of a chromosomal fragment to a nonhomologous chromosome. (2) During protein synthesis, the third stage in the elongation cycle when the RNA carrying the growing polypeptide moves from the A site to the P site on the ribosome. (3) The transport via phloem of food in a plant
trisomy 21
A condition in which there are three number-21 chromsomes, which can cause Down syndrome
tumor
A mass of abnormal cells within otherwise normal tissue, caused by the uncontrolled growth of a transformed cell
zygote
The diploid product of the union of haploid gametes in conception; a fertilized egg