Sociology Exam 2 Part 1
Terms in this set (63)
represents patterned relationships between people that persist over time (Ex.religion)
Behavior and attitudes
What is affected by social structure?
1. Social networks
3 elements of social structures
1. Group Structures
2. Organizational Structures
3. Community Structures
4. Institutional Structures
5. Categorical Structures
6. Stratification Structures
7. Societal Structures
8. Intersocietal systems
8 types of social structure:
1. Primary groups
2. Secondary groups
2 Group Structures
What structure is a bureaucracy?
Structure in which _____________________ organize residence and activities in physical or geographical space
Structures in which religion, polity, economy, education, kinship, and law help solve basic human organizational problems
Structures created and sustained by virtue of differential treatment of those who reveal identifiable characteristics. (Ex. race, gender, religion, etc.)
Structure of societies that have unequal distributions of resources are ___________________(emerge when people categorize others based on their relative resources)
1. Hunter/gatherer societies
2. Horticultural/pastoral societies
3. Agrarian societies
4. Industrial societies
5. Post-industrial societies
Societal structures include:
1. Trade and exchange.
2. Political and economic alliances.
3. Conflict (war).
4. Immigration/emigration patterns.
Intersocietal systems include:
a social structure or web of relations made up of individual units that are connected to one another via some instrumental social force.
Social Exchange Networks
have structural advantages or disadvantages depending on where one is located in the network
1. The number of different types of positions in a network.
2. The number of people in positions of a given type.
3. The nature of connections among positions.
Social Networks can be measured by____________________
1. Cohesion (tight vs. loose)
2. Duration (permanent vs. temporary)
3. Exchanged resources
4. Power disparity
5. Density of ties (connectedness)
What are the different types of nature of connections?
2; the least stable social unit; each member must assume responsibility for its continued existence (or the dyad will dissolve).
3; A significant, qualitative shift from the dyad, _______________are unique in that they are the smallest network where a majority can outvote a minority (called a coalition)
2. Tertius gaudens
3. Divide et impera
(specific to triad)
3 phenomena when a dyad shifts to a triad
Triads provide new avenues of social action not available in dyads, but also restrict other opportunities (e.g. expression of individuality is less possible in a triad).
Difference from dyad to triad
1. Member A may play the role of ___________________ vis-à-vis members B and C
2. This maintains group integrity as conflict between the other two threatens the group.
(the third who rejoices)
Member A may turn a disagreement between members B and C into an advantage for member A.
Divide et impera
(divide and rule)
Member A may intentionally create conflicts between members B and C to attain a dominate position
Amount of interactions between groups
1 - 1
3 - 3
4 - 6
5 - 10
6 - 15
7 - 21
t = n(n-1)/2
n - number of nodes (individuals) in a network
t - number of interactions (ties) among all individuals
1. emphasizes relations, or ties, among actors
2. interdependent with that of other actors within a social network
3. influenced by the network environment
Three basic principles regarding social networks
1. A position in a social system (Linton).
2. A position of value or worth in a community that is communicated through the cultural symbolism of one's possessions and consumption (Veblen).
Status traditionally has two meanings in sociology
1. The social evaluation or ranking assigned to a position in a group, indicating its prestige, importance, or value, or the evaluation or ranking of a person occupying that position.
2. One's relative social standing vis-à-vis others.
Contemporary definitions of status
the place one occupies in a system of interconnected positions.
_______________ as a Student:
1. Fellow students
2. Teaching assistants
the complex (total) of positions an individual occupies
1. The cultural system in which one is embedded.
2. The general behavioral expectations that guide one's behavior.
Benefits of knowing the status set of people in a society
are patterned inequalities of respect, deference, and influence among a group of people; they are rank-ordered relationships among actors.
refers to cultural symbols of worthiness in a social structure
3. Occupational prestige
3 social class variables for socioeconomic status
positions an individual either inherits at birth or receives involuntarily later in life (Ex. race, sex, and social class of parents)
positions that are earned, accomplished, or involve at least some effort or activity on an individual's part (Ex. college president, bank robber, becoming a citizen)
1. One's degree of agency and constraint regarding
2. One's capacity to determine normative expectations for subordinate status positions.
3. One's access to resources, and often the right to allocate resources among others.
4. The emotional reactions of self and others during interactions.
One's relative status position in a social structure determines
According to functionalism
_________________________________________________are necessary mechanisms groups develop to adapt and survive in an environment.
1.Develop means of adapting to their environment.
2.Attain collective goals.
3.Achieve internal cohesion.
4.Maintain organizational patterns.
Functionalist groups must:
Status hierarchies (functionalist)
provide a structure by which individual efforts are organized for effective decision making and collective action regarding a group's goals
(rich has more money because they are smarter)
Status hierarchies (conflict)
develop from negative interdependence: the result of competition over scarce resources.
1. Actors intimidate one another to establish each other's rank in a status hierarchy.
2. Once established, hierarchies remain stable due to actors' shared interests in avoiding continual destructive conflict.
Status hierarchies (utilitarianism)
a reward one actor grants another by deferring to the other and accepting his/her influence
Status hierarchies (symbol interactionism)
views status as the meaning and relative value attached to each actor's self as it is socially constructed in a situation.
a cluster of rules indicating duties to be performed by a member who occupies a given social structural position
1. __________ are the behaviors, obligations, and privileges attached to a status.
2. __________ are an essential components of culture because they lay out what is expected of people, and as individuals perform their roles, those roles mesh together to form society.
one's total set of behaviors for a given status position
1. Ex: a student's role set may include studying, taking tests, and writing term papers.
2. A student's total role set includes all behaviors associated with being a student (going to sporting events, partying, etc.)
refers to Mead's taking the ________of the other.
1. One role takes when they read others' gestures and sense what they will likely do in terms of their dispositions to act and the cultural symbols relevant to a situation.
refers to the process of emitting gestures in order to create a particular role for oneself in a situation.
1. Ex: If during an interaction a friend mentions that you are an athlete to a stranger, you likely will behave in ways that are aligned with what it means to play the "athlete" role.
2. This is accomplished by discussing your sport, your strengths/weaknesses as an athlete, or the amount of points you scored in your last game.
refers to a situation where the behavioral expectations for two (or more) roles are simultaneously enacted, but incompatible.
1. An individual attempting to play both incompatible roles becomes conflicted.
2. For example, a student who works may feel role conflict, as the student role and the worker role may both require behaviors which are impossible to engage at the same time.
refers to a situation where an individual has too many behavioral expectations associated with a role, creating a strain on the person.
1. For example, freshmen college students often feel role strain as the multiple expectations for the student role can require many different types of behavior (studying, athletics, etc.).
Stanford Prison Experiment
Philip Zimbardo's prison experiment (1971) provides valuable information about the nature of roles and behavior
1. Zimbardo transformed the Stanford psychology department basement into a make-shift prison.
2. Students were randomly assigned to roles of guards and prisoners
is the conscious or unconscious attempt to control images projected in real or imagined social interactions.
1. Dramaturgical loyalty
2. Dramaturgical discipline
3. Dramaturgical circumspection
3 impression management techniques
refers to one's attempts to create an in-group feeling with an audience.
refers to avoiding slips of the tongue and maintaining self-control.
regards planning ahead of time for a performance, and having contingency plans for when things go away.
1. Front stage: the part of a performance that functions in general ways to define the situation for others observing the performance.
2. Back stage: where actors can behave informally; where facts suppressed in the front stage emerge.
Goffman said that a performance (behavior) is categorized as ________________________or ________________________
1. Setting: an environment necessary for a performance (e.g. tennis players need a tennis court).
2. Personal front: items, or props actors use to assist in playing a role (e.g. a doctor's stethoscope).
▪Personal front has two facets: appearance and manner (audiences expect both to be consistent).
-Appearance: items which reflect an actor's status.
-Manner: physical mannerisms which signify expected behavior.
Front stage has two elements:
stigma, or the "spoiled identity
examines the gap between what a person ought to be (virtual social identity) and what a person actually is (actual social identity).
There are two types of stigmas:
Where an actor assumes an audience knows of the stigma.
1. Ex. physical deformities
2. The basic dramaturgical problem for actors with discredited stigma is managing tension between themselves and their audience.
Where differences between actor and audience are not known or perceivable by an audience.
1. Ex. criminal past, homosexual passing as straight
2. The basic dramaturgical problem for actors with discreditable stigma is maintaining secrecy of stigma unknown to audience.
W.I. Thomas (1863-1947)
was interested in how people create a definition of the situation through their interactions.
1. Two people may be placed in the same situation, yet may act completely different based on their respective definitions of the situation.
a famous dictum that defines the social construction of reality:
"Situations defined as real are real in their consequences."
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