25 terms

Miller & Levine Biology - Chapter 13

long chain of amino acids that makes proteins
genetic code
The information encoded within the genetic material that can be translated into a protein
A three-nucleotide sequence of DNA or mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid or termination signal; the basic unit of the genetic code.
Process by which mRNA is decoded and a protein is produced
group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon
In RNA molecules, adenine is complementary to adenine.
A type of nucleic acid containing the sugar ribose. Used in protein synthesis.
messenger RNA
RNA molecule that carries copies of instructions for the assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA to the rest of the cell
ribosomal RNA
type of RNA that combines with proteins to form ribosomes
transfer RNA
type of RNA molecule that transfers amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis
the process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA
RNA polymerase
Enzyme similar to DNA polymerase that binds to DNA and separates the DNA strands during transcription
A rare change in the DNA of a gene, ultimately creating genetic diversity.
point mutation
Gene mutation involving changes in one or a few nucleotides.
frameshift mutuation
Mutation that shifts the reading frame of the genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide
A chemical or physical agent that interacts with DNA and causes a mutation.
condition in which an organism has extra sets of chromosomes
An organic compound that is made of one or more chains of amino acids and that is a principal component of all cells
What are the four bases of RNA
adenine - uracil : cytosine - guanine
Specific region of a gene where RNA polymerase can bind and begin transcription
mRNA that is removed just after transcription and is not used to make the protein
mRNA that is left after introns are removed and are used to make the protein
A mutation in which a nucleotide or a codon in DNA is replaced with a different nucleotide
A mutation that removes one or more nucleotide pairs from a gene.
A mutation that adds one or more nucleotide pairs to a gene.