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Midterm #1- Key terms
Terms in this set (19)
The inability to meet a basic minimum level of living standards due to lack of income or resources, i.e., the minimum level of income required for physical survival. The World Bank defines this level as US $1.25 per day measured at international purchasing power parity
People-centred, participatory approaches to development that seek to de-objectify the recipients of aid and involve them in the process of their own material improvement, in contrast to Western development models that are seen to impose "solutions" to "problems" on aid recipients.
Basic needs approach
An approach to development popularized in the 1970s that encouraged national governments and aid donors to prioritize policies, budgets, and actions that would ensure disadvantaged people were able to access a minimum level of well-being, including food, water, shelter and primary education.
A method of understanding poverty and development developed by Nobel Prize-winning economist Amartya Sen, who argues that development should not be seen simply as rising income levels but rather as an increase in individuals substantive freedoms and ability to make choices they value.
The economic, sociological, and cultural process by which nation-states, organizations, and individuals become increasingly interlinked and interdependent
The most underprivileged and oppressed peoples within the so-called developed countries and Third World countries. It is used to speak about a population that suffers from economic, and social exclusion, and more generally, about stateless nations. The term was first used by the Canadian Aboriginal leader George Manuel and Michael Posluns in their book, The Fourth World: An Indian reality (1974), to designated those indigenous peoples who continue to experience internal colonialism by settler societies.
GDP per capita
The most widely used indicator of economic development, which measures the total market value of t he goods and services produced in an economy (gross domestic product) divided by the number of people in that economy. A measure of the average wealth in a country and does not account for how that wealth is distributed.
Purchasing Power Parity
A comparative indicator based on an exchange rate that equates the price of a basket of identical traded goods and services in two countries.
The networks of relationships between individuals and communities that provide, to a greater or lesser extent, support in times of financial, health, and emotional need and connections in terms of securing employment; broad and diffuse social trust.
An income level that indicates income deprivation and insecurity but at which actual physical survival is not threatened. Typically considered to be an income of US $2 per day at international purchasing power parity.
Poverty that does not threaten a person's daily survival but in which that person may not have the income necessary to fully participate in his or her society. Relative poverty is often the principal kind of poverty in developed countries.
The unfair treatment of a person or group as a result of prejudice. It includes sexism and sexual injustice.
The field of study examining questions of morality at the level of the world, such as international justice, distribution of wealth among nations or among peoples of different nations, global trade, and humanitarian activity.
An ethical position that holds national boundaries to be irrelevant to questions of justice and argues that our common humanity entails a set of shared values and responsibilities to people around the worlds regardless of where we were born or currently live.
The ethical standpoint that individuals belong to a political social community, that this is a factor of key moral relevance, and that a social order fosters communal bonds is morally preferable to an individualistic social order. Often contrasted with liberalism
The ethical standpoint that holds individual freedom to be the highest moral principle and that it should not be infringed upon by collectivity, society, or the state. Key individual rights include the rights to acquire and retain property. Individual rights should never be breached in favour of the collective good.
A mainstream international economic theory positing that markets are almost always the best decision-makers in therms of efficient resource allocation and that trade and investment flow across borders are optimized when there as as few restrictions as possible. The term "neo" distinguishes the creed from classical liberalism and indicates that some mainstream economists doe recognize that there are certain market failures that must be addressed.
An awareness by researchers or development practitioners of the social situation and power relationships in which they are embedded. This awareness, particularly their position relative to the local people with whom they interact, helps development researchers and practitioners make better decisions and reduce their negative impact.
A derogatory term to describe well-paid development consultants who jet in and out of countries, stay in five-star hotels, and dispense advice with little knowledge of local conditions.
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