57 terms

Psych Ch. 1

the scientific study of behavior and mental processes; behavior meaning outward or overt actions and reactions
objective introspection
the process of examining and measuring one's own thoughts and mental activities
early perspective in psychology associated with Wilhelm Wundt and Edward Titchener, in which the focus of study is the structure or basic elements of the mind
early perspective in psychology associated with William James, in which the focus of study is how the mind allows people to adapt, live work, and play
Gestalt psychology
early perspective in psychology focusing on perception and sensation, particularly the perception of patterns and whole figures; "The whole is greater than the sum of all parts."
the theory and therapy based on the work of Sigmund Freud
the science of behavior that focuses on observable behavior only
psychodynamic perspective
modern version of psychoanalysis that is more focused on the development of a sense of self and the discovery of other motivations behind a person's behavior than sexual motivations
cognitive perspective
modern perspective that focuses on memory, intelligence, perception, problem solving, and learning
cognitive neuroscience
study of the physical changes in the brain and nervous system during thinking
sociocultural perspective
perspective that focuses on the relationship between social behavior and culture
biopsychological perspective
perspective that attributes human and animal behavior to biological events occurring in the body
evolutionary perspective
perspective that focuses on the biological bases on universal mental characteristics that all humans share'; assumes that human behavior may have developed in certain directions
a medical doctor who has specialized in the diagnosed and treatment of psychological disorders
either a psychiatrist or a psychologist who has special training in the theories of Sigmund Freud and his method of psychoanalysis
psychiatric social worker
a social worker with some training in therapy methods who focuses on the environmental conditions that can have an impact on mental disorders, such as poverty, overcrowding, stress, and drug abuse
a professional with an academic degree and specialized training in one or more areas of psychology; has the broadest area of interests and functions
scientific method
system of gathering data so that bias and error in measurement are reduced; perceive the question, form hypothesis, test hypothesis, draw conclusions
tentative explanation of a phenomenon based on observations
in research, repeating a study or experiment to see if the same results will be obtained in an effort to demonstrate reliability of results
observer effect
tendency of people or animals to behave differently from normal when they are being observed
participant observation
a naturalistic observation in which the observer becomes a participant in the group being observed
observer bias
tendency of observers to see what they expect to see
case study
study of one individual in great detail; main disadvantage is that it is not generalizable to other similar conditions; main advantage is the amount detail it provides
representative sample
randomly selected sample of subjects from a larger population of subjects
the entire group of people or animals in which the researcher is interested
a measure of the relationship between two variables
correlation coefficient
a number derived from the formula for measuring a correlation and indicating the strength and direction of a correlation; the smaller the stronger the relationship
a deliberate manipulation of a variable to see if corresponding changes in behavior result, allowing the determination of cause-and-effect relationships
operational definition
definition of a variable of interest that allows it to be directly measured
independent variable
variable in an experiment that is manipulated by the experimenter
dependent variable
variable in an experiment that represents the measurable response or behavior of the subjects in the experiment
experimental group
subjects in an experiment who are subjected to the independent variable
control group
subjects in an experiment who are not subjected to the independent variable and who may receive a placebo treatment
random assignment
process of assigning subjects to the experimental or control groups randomly, so that each subject has an equal chance of being in either group
placebo effect
the phenomenon in which the expectations of the participants in a study can influence their behavior
experimenter effect
tendency of the experimenter's expectations for a study to unintentionally influence the results of the study
single-blind study
study in which the subjects do not know if they are in the experimental or the control group except the experimenter
double-blind study
study in which neither the experimenter nor the subjects know if the subjects are in the experimental or control group; control for the placebo effect and the experimenter effect
critical thinking
making reasoned judgments about claims; based on reason and logical evaluation
known as the "third force" in psychology; focuses on free will and self-actualization
mental processes
internal covert processes
diagnosis and treatment for less serious mental problems such as adjustment disorders
William Wundt
he believed that the mind was made up of thoughts, experiences, emotions, and other basic elements; he called this process objective introspection
Edward Titchener
he expanded Wundt's original ideas, calling it structuralism; believed that every experience could be broken down into its individual emotions and sensations
Margaret Washburn
one Titchener's students and was the 1st woman to receive a Ph.D. in psychology; publishes "The Animal Mind"
William James
a Harvard instructor who published "Principles of Psychology"; more interested in the importance of consciousness to everyday life rather than just the analysis of it, called functionalism; "survival of the fittest"
Mary Whiton Calkins
became the 1st female president of the American Psychological Society; denied a degree by Harvard because of sex
Max Werthheimer
believed in Gestalt psychology
John Watson
known as the Father of Behaviorism
the four goals that aim at uncovering the mysteries of human and animal behavior; description, explanation, prediction, and control
mental processes
refers to all the internal, covert activity of our minds, such as thinking, feeling, and remembering
involves observing a behavior and noting everything about it
a general explanation of a set of observations or facts
determining what will happen
the modification of some behavior
125 years
the time psychology has been around