Pedagogy and Professional Responsibilities (PPR) 160
Terms in this set (187)
Designing instruction and assessment to promote student learning.
Understands (human development) and applies knowledge to instruction/assessment which motivates students.
4 Developmental Domains
Cognitive, Social, Physical, and Emotional
The growth of thinking skills and processes.
Normal in Cognitive Development
student plays with peers and use toys of opposite gender.
Red Flags in Cognitive Development
student does not speak or play and rejects peer interaction.
Jean Piaget's Stages
Sensorimotor, Pre-operational, Concrete, and Formal
Occurs at ages 0-2: are attached to caregiver and develop speech towards the end of first year.
common trait in sensorimotor stage "out of sight, out of mind".
Occurs at ages 2-7: engages in imaginative play and does not grasp that others have different ideas (egocentric).
quantity remains the same no matter the size or shape of an object. When a child has grasped this concept it means they have moved from pre-op to concrete.
Occurs at ages 7-11: demonstrates logical thought and how knowledge is gained through cooperative learning such as group discussions.
things can be done, then undone.
Occurs at ages 11 and up: able to research, debate, justify and extend own learning, and student-centered.
Children learn through culture and develop thoughts based on interactions with others.
Zone of Proximal Development
difference between what a learner can do without help and what he/she can do with help.
Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Reasoning
Obedience and Punishment, Self-Interest, Conformity, Social Order, Social Contract, and Ethical Principles.
Moral decisions are made based on own interests to avoid punishments or gain rewards.
Focus is on pleasing others and following rules.
Doing what's allowed vs. what's right and rules can be bent for the good of the group without being rewarded.
Environmental factors and prenatal development such as malnutrition, illness, and prenatal health care.
Childs ability to control feelings and form secure relationships.
bond between child and caregiver.
distress occurs when child is separated from caregiver.
Authoritarian, Permissive, Authoritative, and Uninvolved
strict without reasoning.
has rules but reasons with child.
little interest and neglectful.
thoughts and experiences from the past that one can use to relate to new information.
The most common learning styles are visual, auditory, and kinesthetic.
learn by being shown images and graphs.
absorb information by listening to lectures and group discussion.
file information in their brain through hands-on activities and constant movement.
What factors affect domains?
Vision, Perception, Disorganization, and Health.
child build language, solve problems, and social skills.
alone and does not pay attention to anyone.
next to each other with the same game but do not talk or do same activity.
talking with peers and very alert to the action around them.
Understands student (diversity) and plans experiences/assessments that celebrate student differences through learning.
common physical characteristics that define a group of people, race.
beliefs, behaviors, and traditions of their heritage.
strengths and needs of ELLs.
Stages of Language Acquisition
Home Language, Silent Period, Formulaic Speech, Social and Academic Language.
Student uses L1 to communicate only with those who's speak it. Pair the student with partners who are fluent in both L1 and L2.
Student does not participate and has minimal speech even in L1. The student is listening and absorbing L2 while making mental connections to home language L1.
Student speaks like an infant, only using one or two words. They will benefit by learning more English vocabulary and peer help.
Student can converse about everyday things but will need assistance with building vocabulary.
Student can read and understand L2.
Evaluation for ELLs
Asses through written and oral measures but allow multiple opportunities to demonstrate their learning.
ELLs and Laws
Teaches cannot require the use of English only or deny home language.
Support for ELLs
Provide assistance, connect with other teachers and parents, check for student comprehension.
both boys and girls in the classroom.
provide opportunities for the child to gain feelings of success like being a special helper.
Home Life is Chaotic
provide extra structure for the child and predictable expectations.
provide ways for the child to complete work in class or choose an alternate project.
Lack Background Knowledge
explain, demonstrate, and show pictures related to the topic.
provide access at school and partner child with other students who know how to use the equipment.
Support for Struggling Learners
Modify assignment based on teacher observations and ELLs Individual Education Plan (IEP). Be able to provide tutoring and review unfamiliar concepts.
Students are perfectionist and become frustrated when they cannot complete assignments the way they envision. Gifted students must be allowed choice and opportunities to extend their learning.
How can teachers help gifted students?
Partner them with same level students, let them explore advanced interest, and collaborate with the schools specialist.
Opportunities that occur off-topic but provide learning. Student notice a butterfly outside and the teacher explain its reproductive cycle.
students understand, value, and respect different cultures and people.
to draw together based on similarities.
How can teachers teach diversity?
Allow students to explore cultures and teach tolerance.
WRONG Answer Choices on TEXES
can be anything that separates students by similarities, punishes students for their diversity, and anything that addresses the need of the majority.
Understands procedures for effective instruction based on learning goals and objectives (TEKS).
The Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills are vertically and horizontally aligned.
knowledge builds from grade to grade.
knowledge and expectations travel from subject to subject.
are the force behind education and teachers should test each one.
students must be able to comprehend the topic.
the topic is appropriate to the students live.
the topic is important.
the topic is in the students age group.
Ability To Asses
objectives should be designed so learning can be measured. Student will explain, explore, and perform.
provide students with background knowledge and adapt lessons to their level.
Alignment with District
make sure the lessons use TEKS and follow the campus goals.
Traditional tests measured based on specific criteria (criterion) or how the group as whole performs (norm). Provide more accuracy but L2 learners are at a disadvantage, it is slanted toward English proficient students.
Designed by teacher such as observations and class work. Provide immediate feedback and helpful to students who do not perform well under pressure, L2 learners.
Test and observations that are given as the concept is being taught.
Test given at the end of semesters.
Determine if material is age-appropriate and aligned with the TEKS.
Reason in terms of facts.
Reason in terms of ideas and deeper meaning.
Young Children (EC-2) have limited attention span
discussions should be short, have active games, and allow movement to help with fine/gross motor skills.
Older Children (2-5) perform concrete operations
short periods of student driven discussion, allow student to make decisions about their work, and use technology.
Mature Children (6-up) capable of abstract thought
students evaluate own performance and teach their peers, project-based learning, and are college and career readiness.
1. Gain attention and use a hook.
2. Active prior knowledge.
3. Use graphic organizers to map developing awareness.
4. Teach concepts in an active way.
5. Present new knowledge.
6. Use informal assessment.
7. Demonstrate how to perform a task.
8. Students help the teacher complete examples.
9. Students should use what they know to create projects (scaffold).
10. Close the lesson and have students evaluate what they learned.
11. Assess learning
12. Re-teach as needed.
Understands the learning process and how factors affect a students' instruction.
animated and noisy, teacher facilitates discussion, student drives learning, and the focus is team work.
help or support put into place to support learners until they can stand on their own.
Enables students to connect curriculum to their own culture and experience. Leading class discussion and using graphic organizers help build it.
What I know, What I want to know, and What I learned.
How can teachers make learning meaningful and releavant?
Reflect on students cultural diversity and learning styles, have real-world applications, and use teachable moments.
Range of Thinking Abilities
Teachers need to analyze and identify their students developmental levels. This information should be used to plan lessons to accommodate student needs.
Power of Grouping
low-medium, medium-high, and high-high.
where learning, questioning, researching, and discussion are fostered.
A style of teaching in which children drive the learning process based on questions that they generate.
Students actively seek new learning when allowed to have input in teacher lessons. Still, teachers must establish objectives and help craft projects.
CORRECT Answer Choices on TEXES
can be routines and procedures which provide structure, for K-1 choose the more active option, and the higher on Bloom's Taxonomy the better.
hierarchical models used to classify educational learning objectives into levels of complexity and specificity.
Creating a positive and productive classroom environment.
Established a classroom climate that fosters learning and feels safe.
Young Children Need
to be able and work together, learn how to treat others/behave, and self-manage.
Older Children Need
to be able to learn life, interpersonal, and decision-making skills.
classroom is arranged to support collaboration and provide space between students.
taught to respect the feelings and emotions of others.
learn to demonstrate respect for diversity.
Organize For Success
allows smooth transitions between activities.
model, discuss, explore common ground, and value uniqueness.
Why is engagement important?
Keep your students challenged and excited about what they are learning.
How do engaged learners look?
Animated and often moving around the classroom.
How do disengaged learners act?
Speak about irrelevant things and appear bored.
How can we foster engagement?
Lessons must be appropriate, expectations are clear, and students are given choices.
-Praise and correct behaviors, not children.
-Redirect and prevent misbehavior by haven clear expectations.
-Be personal but professional.
-Motivate students by making learning fun.
Tables should be in groups and use the periphery area for centers and a small library.
WRONG Answer Choices on TEXES
anything that isolates a student, harsh punishment, and lessons that do not allow collaboration.
Understands strategies for creating an organized and managed environment.
working in small groups.
where student use a variety of activities to improve understanding.
segment of times between activities.
teacher assistance or aides.
Partnership for 21st Century Learning
Communication and Collaboration are essential.
when students work together, it is important each member of the group performs equally.
Time Management Strategies
involve checklists, work folders, and routines.
communicate expectations, accountability, and encourage students to monitor own behavior.
includes arranged seating, consequences, and oversight.
allow extra time, provide information in many ways, give work in chunks, and allow wait time.
Implementing Effective, Responsive Instruction, and Assessment
Understands strategies for communicating effectively in varied teaching context.
questions students form about academic concepts and are determined to find answers.
Higher Order Thinking
being able to think and process information behind basic concept.
is the classification of higher order thinking skills where student demonstrate and apply what they have learned.
encourage inquiry, model questioning, and encourage building of others ideas.
What are benefits of questioning students?
It provides feedback, assures mastery, and effectiveness of teaching is exposed.
Curiosity and Independent Reasoning
provoke deep thought, produce original ideas, and expect students to defend their answers.
Give students a moment to think, use questions that tackle Blooms Taxonomy, and encourage students to identify the most important questions in a review.
Provides appropriate instruction that engages students in learning.
students can discuss ideas, events, and concepts.
make predictions, create questions, and seek answers.
identify problems and find solutions through research.
Varied Teacher-Student Roles
students learn best when they are allowed to teach.
do not dumb-down the lessons; instead allow the student new ways to find success and understanding.
students direct their own learning through hands-on activities.
concepts build upon previous learning concept and connects essential questions.
student groups that change depending on activity which gives them wide exposure to diversity.
speed at which concepts are presented (keep the lessons moving).
Otherwise known as think time, students need 2-3 seconds to think before answering. Wait time depends on the cognitive level of the question being asked.
drive to do well and succeed, comes from within.
motivator that comes to you, comes from outside of ones self.
is highly effective for students self-esteem and feedback.
Incorporates technology to plan, organize, deliver and evaluate instruction.
are physical components of a computer.
a program or application run within the computer system.
a hardware connection such as a mouse.
a connection between multiple computers.
Student should be exposed to word processing, internet resources, and graphic programs.
How can teachers use technology?
To prepare, provide visuals, get supplies, and communicate.
How can students use technology?
For self-guided instruction, research, reinforcement, and to develop higher order thinking skills.
Teachers should be FAIR in providing assignments that can be performed with the available resources of each student.
Monitors students performance and achievement and provides high-quality feedback.
Find concepts to re-tech, save strategies that worked, and identify learner needs.
Fulfilling Professional Roles and Responsibilities
Understands the importance of family involvement and communication in children's education.
Help students with homework, encourage child, and provide insight to a child's strengths/weaknesses.
Communication with Family
Provide clear expectations/goals, communicate concerns, and be understanding of home issues.
Never argue with parent, defend/justify teacher actions, and remain calm to be able to provide solution.
create friendly setting, plan what will be discussed, allow parents to talk, and address concerns.
Enhances professional knowledge by interacting with other members of the community.
collaborating with colleagues who share content area across grade levels, all science teachers 2nd-5th grade.
colleagues from different content areas in a single grade level, all 6th grade teachers in all subjects.
two teachers in the same classroom.
Partner Teaching are two teachers in the same
class but each has a specific curriculum.
Inclusion Teaching is a special ed teacher assisting students in a regular classroom.
Mentoring is a student teacher.
Texas teachers are required to do decision-making, solve problems, and attend any district/school committees/events.
Professional Development and Appraisal System has two components: teacher self-report and administrator appraisal on one or more 45 min. observations with 8 domains as criteria.
1. Active student participation.
2. Learner-centered instruction.
3. Evaluation on student progress.
4. Management of student discipline.
5. Professional Communication.
6. Professional development.
7. Compliance with policies.
8. Improvement of students performance.
Understands legals and ethical requirements for educators in Texas.
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act mandates that special ed students be placed in a classroom setting that provides maximum opportunity for interaction with non-disabled peers. This may happen for at least part of day and is known as mainstream or inclusion.
Individual Education Plan some students such as special ed have in place to meet their learner needs and a teacher must regularly adhere/review by law.
Must be selected by a TAG committee and be provided learning opportunities that meet their advanced needs.
Teachers represent the front line of defense. Types of abuse include physical, sexual, emotional, and neglect.
Code of Ethics
Do not reveal confidential student information, exclude them from participation, and does not engage inappropriately.
awareness and understanding of ones own thought process.
using knowledge to deal with a new situation.
is when existing knowledge is unable to be applied to a situation and alternate means have to be done.
drives the learning process as we do not like to be frustrated and will seek to restore balance by mastering the new challenge.
occurs when new information cannot be fitted into existing schemas or knowledge (assimilation).
is judging another culture solely by the values and standards of one's own culture.