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Chapter 17-Blood

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formed elements
The cellular elements of blood; erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets. (plural)
plasma
colorless watery fluid of blood and lymph containing no cells and in which erythrocytes and leukocytes and platelets are suspended (singular)
erythrocytes
Red blood cells that transport oxygen (plural)
buffy coat
a thin light colored layer of white blood cells and platelets than lie between a top layer of plasma and red blood cells (singular)
leukocytes
White blood cells (plural)
platelets
tiny, disk-shaped bodies in the blood, important in blood clot formation (plural)
55
% of blood that is plasma
1
% of blood that is buffy coat
45
% of blood that is Erythrocytes
hematocrit
a measuring instrument to determine (usually by centrifugation) the relative amounts of corpuscles and plasma in the blood (singular)
slightly alkaline
pH of blood
8
% of body weight attributed to blood
albumin
Protein in blood; maintains the proper amount of water in the blood (singular)
hemoglobin
iron-containing protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen for delivery to cells (singular)
hemocytoblasts
stem cells that give rise to all the formed elements of the blood (plural)
hemopoiesis
formation of blood cells
plasma proteins
function to buffer blood, transport molecules, and maintain osmotic pressure (plural)
globin
The protein portion of hemoglobin (singular)
heme
a complex red organic pigment containing iron and other atoms to which oxygen binds (singular)
oxyhemoglobin
compound formed when oxygen combines with hemoglobin (singular)
deoxyhemoglobin
hemoglobin with no oxygen bound to it, a dull red color. (singular)
carbaminohemoglobin
the compound formed by the union of carbon dioxide with hemoglobin (singular)
erythropoiesis
process of RBC production, is a negative feedback system
reticulocyte
an immature red blood cell containing a network of filaments or granules (singular)
erythropoietin
A hormone produced and released by the kidney that stimulates the production of red blood cells by the bone marrow. (singular)
ferritin
primary iron storage protein; soluble in blood; serum level reflects marrow storage iron (singular)
hemosiderin
iron-containing pigment derived from breakdown of hemoglobin (singular)
transferrin
a globulin in blood plasma that carries iron (singular)
120
red blood cells have a lifespan of approximately ______ (number) days
bilirubin
Orange-yellow pigment in bile. It is formed by the breakdown of hemoglobin when red blood cells die. (singular)
anemia
"lacking blood" lack of a normal number of red blood cells (singular)
hemorrhagic anemia
acute or chronic loss of blood (singular)
hemolytic anemia
extreme reduction in circulating RBC's due to their destruction (singular)
aplastic anemia
failure of blood cell production in the bone marrow (singular)
microcytes
small pale iron deficient rbcs (plural)
macrocytes
abnormally large RBC (plural)
thalassemias
genetic anemia in which one of the globin chains is faulty or absent and the rbcs are thin, delicate and deficient in hemoglobin (common in people of Mediterranean ancestry) (plural)
sickle cell anemia
a genetic disorder in which erythroctyes take on an abnormal curved or "sickle" shape (singular)
hemoglobin S
sickle cell hemoglobin
polycythemia
a disorder characterized by an abnormal increase in the number of red blood cells in the blood (singular)
blood doping
"induced erythrocythemia"-procedure to increase the oxygen carrying capacity of red blood cells. Increases Concentration of RBC
diapedesis
passage of blood cells (especially white blood cells) through intact capillary walls and into the surrounding tissue
amoeboid motion
when WBCs form flowing cytoplasmic extensions that move them along (singular)
positive chemotaxis
movement toward a chemical stimulus
leukocytosis
abnormal increase of white blood cells
never let monkeys eat bananas
mnemonic for remembering leukocytes in order of most abundant to least abundant
granulocytes
A group of leukocytes containing granules in their cytoplasm; neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils. (plural)
neutrophils
The most abundant type of white blood cell, are phagocytic and tend to self-destruct as they destroy foreign invaders, limiting their life span to a few days. (plural)
polymorphonuclear
pertaining to a many-shaped nucleus; a type of white blood cell (polys)
eosinophils
white blood cell that are responsible for combating infection by parasites (2-4 % of WBC's) (plural)
basophils
Blood cells that enter damaged tissues and enhance the inflammation process and contain histamine and heparin (.5-1% of WBC's) (plural)
agranulocytes
A group of leukocytes without granules in their nuclei; lymphocytes, monocytes. (plural)
lymphocytes
the two types of white blood cells that are part of the body's immune system: B lymphocytes form in the bone marrow and release antibodies that fight bacterial infections; T lymphocytes form in the thymus and other lymphatic tissue and attack cancer cells, viruses, and foreign substances. (25 % of WBC's) (plural)
monocytes
an agranular leukocyte that is able to migrate into tissues and transform into a macrophage (3-8% of WBC's) (plural)
leukopoiesis
the formation of white blood cells, begins in the marrow.
interleukins
proteins that stimulate the growth of B and T lymphocytes (plural)
colony stimulating factors
Stimulate progenitor cells in bone marrow to increase numbers of leukocytes, thereby improving immune function (plural)
myeloid stem cell
secondary stem cell; produces all formed elements (except lymphocytes) (singular)
lymphoid stem cell
secondary stem cell; produces lymphocytes (singular)
leukopenia
an abnormal lowering of the white blood cell count
leukemia
malignant disease characterized by excessive increase in abnormal white blood cells formed in the bone marrow
mononucleosis
a condition caused by the Epstein-Barr virus characterized by an increase in mononuclear cells (monocytes and lymphocytes) in the blood, along with enlarged lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy), fatigue, and sore throat (pharyngitis)
megakaryocytes
the large multinucleate cells that platelets are fragments of (plural)
thrombopoietin
hormone from liver stimulates platelet formation (singular)
hemostasis
the stoppage of bleeding
vascular spasm
1st step in hemostasis, important phase that platelets play in blood clotting which helps to prevent blood loss by the contraction of the smooth muscle lining the vessels
platelet plug formation
2nd step in hemostasis, When vessels are damaged, platelets will adhere to the rough edges. This may stop the leak. The platelets also release clotting factors.
coagulation
3rd step in hemostasis, blood clotting
procoagulants
compounds that promote clotting,Activated when injury occurs. (plural)
intrinsic pathway
coagulation pathway involving coagulation factors circulating within the bloodstream (singular)
extrinsic pathway
coagulation pathway initiated by the release of thromboplastin from injured tissue (singular)
prothrombin
plasma protein; converted to thrombin in the clotting process (singular)
thrombin
an enzyme that acts on fibrinogen in blood causing it to clot (singular)
fibrinogen
Plasma protein that is converted to fibrin in the clotting process (singular)
fibrin
a white insoluble fibrous protein formed by the action of thrombin on fibrinogen when blood clots (singular)
anticoagulants
Substances that inhibit coagulation (plural)
clot retraction
after a clot has formed, it begins to condense into a more compact structure by this process (singular)
serum
plasma minus clotting proteins and cells (singular)
fibrinolysis
a normal ongoing process that dissolves fibrin and results in the removal of small blood clots
plasmin
an enzyme that dissolves the fibrin of blood clots (singular)
heparin
anticoagulant found in blood and tissue cells (singular)
thromboembolic disorders
diseases associated with the undesirable formation of blood clots (plural)
bleeding disorders
abnormalities that prevent normal clot formation (plural)
disseminated intravascular coagulation
widespread clotting in the blood vessels causing obstruction to the tissues (singular)
thrombus
a blood clot formed within a blood vessel and remaining attached to its place of origin (singular)
embolus
A clot that breaks lose and travels through the bloodstream. (singular)
embolism
the sudden closure of a blood vessel by a traveling blood clot, or embolus (singular)
warfarin
an anticoagulant (trade name Coumadin) use to prevent and treat a thrombus or embolus (singular)
thrombocytopenia
a blood disease characterized by an abnormally small number of platelets in the blood (singular)
hemophilias
hereditary bleeding disorders caused by lack of clotting factors (plural)
agglutinogens
Antigens formed on the surface of red blood cells, whose presence and structure are genetically determined. (plural)
ABO blood groups
Genetically determined classes of human blood that are based on the presence or absence of carbohydrates A and B on the surface of red blood cells; phenotypes, also called blood types, are A, B, AB, and O. (plural)
Rh blood groups
the extensive, genetically determined system of red blood cell antigens defined by the immune serum of rabbits injected with rhesus monkey erythrocytes, or by human antisera (plural)
AB
blood type that can receive A,B,AB, or O
B
blood type that can receive B or O
A
blood type that can receive A or O
O
blood type that can receive O
erythroblastosis fetalis
hemolytic disease in the newborn caused by a blood groop (Rh factor) incompatibility between the mother and the fetus (singular)
A
identify blood type #1
B
identify blood type #2
AB
identify blood type #3
O
identify blood type #4
transfusion reaction
a serious, and potentially fatal, complication of a blood transfusion in which a severe immune response occurs because the patient's blood and the donated blood do not match (singular)
autologous transfusion
a transfusion prepared from a donor's own blood (singular)
thrombo-
clot of blood (prefix)
erythro-
red (prefix)
-penia
deficiency (suffix)
-poietin
that which causes production (suffix)
-phils
phagacyte (suffix)
hemolytic
relating to that which is destructive to red blood cells (singular)
-hemia
blood condition (suffix)
Monocyte
Kidney shaped clear background
Lymphocyte
Spherical
Eosinophil
Bi-lobed granular background
Neutrophil
Multi-lobed granular background
Most common white blood cell found in whole blood
Neutrophil
Mounts an immune response by direct cell attack or via antibodies
Lympocyte
Kills parasitic worms
Eosinophil
Becomes a macrophage
Monocyte
Main bacteria killer during acute infections
Neutrophil
SEE Figure 17.1 and 17.2
Study guide!
Nucleus has two lobes; contains granules of lysosomal enzymes; functions in attacking parasitic worms.
Eosinophil
Nucleus is multilobed; functions as a phagocyte; contains fine indistinct granules
Neutrophil
Transports CO2 and oxygen
Erythrocytes
Contains a U- or an S-shaped nucleus; granules stain very dark; releases histamine and heparin
Basophils
Largest of the WBCs; crucial in defense against viruses; associated with chronic infections
Monocytes
The major contributor to plasma osmotic pressure.
Albumin
Thrombin catalyzes the activation of these molecules present in plasma.
Fibrinogen
Forms the structural framework of a blood clot.
Fibrinogen
Makes up most of plasma protein.
Albumin
Main contributor to osmotic pressure.
Albumin
Antibodies released by plasma cells during immune response.
Gamma Gobulins
Forms fibrin thread of blood clot.
Fibrinogen
Transport proteins that bind to lipids, metal ions, and fat-soluble vitamins.
Alpha and Beta Gobulins
Polymorphonuclear leukocyte.
Neutrophil
White blood cell with dark-staining nucleus.
Monocyte
Protein capable of changing shape and color in the presence of O2.
Hemoglobin
Adverse reaction of donor blood cells with recipient plasma.
Agglutination
Lacking in hemophilia type A.
Factor VIII
Produced by platelets.
Prostaglandin derivates such as Thrombozane A2
A fibrous protein that gives shape to an RBC plasma membrane.
Spectrin
Hormone that stimulates production of RBCs.
Erythropoietin
Stimulates WBC production.
Interleukins and CSF's
Natural anticoagulant found in basophils.
Heparin
Universal donor.
Type O
Universal recipient.
Type AB
Cancerous condition involving white blood cells.
Leukemia
Condition in which blood has abnormally low oxygen-carrying capacity.
Anemia
Abnormal excess of erythrocytes resulting in an increase in blood viscosity.
Polycythemia
Free-floating thrombus in the bloodstream.
Embolism
The primary source of RBCs in the adult human being is the bone marrow in the shafts of the long bones.
False - Found in the bones of Axial Skeleton and Girdles - and in the proximal epipsys of humerus and femur
Leukemia refers to cancerous conditions of white blood cells.
True
The immediate response to blood vessel injury is clotting.
False - It's Vascular Spasm
The process of fibrinolysis disposes of bacteria when healing has occurred.
False - removes clots when healing has occurred. Without blood vessels would becomes blocked
The RBC "graveyard" is the liver.
False - The RBC graveyard is the SPL
Hemorrhagic anemias result from blood loss.
True
White blood cells are produced through the action of colony-stimulating factors.
True - 2 families 1) Interlukeins 2) Colony stimulating factors
Hemoglobin is made up of the protein heme and the red pigment globin.
False - Protein globin and red heme pigment
Each HEME contains an atom of iron and can transport one molecule of oxygen.
True - each iron can combine reversibly w/one molecule of oxygen
Each hemoglobin molecule can transport two molecules of oxygen.
False - 4 molecules of oxygen
Diapedesis is the process by which red blood cells move into tissue spaces from the interior of blood capillaries.
False - WBC's are able to do this NOT WBC
Positive chemotaxis is a feedback system that signals leukocyte migration into damaged areas.
True
A condition of leukocytosis indicates over 11,000 white blood cells per cubic millimeter in the blood.
True
Basophils increase in number when parasitic invasion occurs.
False - eosinophils
Leukopenia is an abnormally low number of leukocytes.
True
A person with type B blood could receive blood from a person with either type B or type O blood.
True
Leukocytes move through the circulatory system by amoeboid motion.
False- they move through tissue spaces at the site of infection
Granulocytes called neutrophils are phagocytic and are the most numerous of all white blood cell types.
True
All lymphocytes are leukocytes, but not all leukocytes are lymphocytes.
True
Myelocytic leukemia involves a cancerous condition of lymphocytes.
False - involves myeloblast descendants
Which of the following is a pivotal molecule associated with the external surfaces of aggregated platelets and is involved in the intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms of blood clotting?
PF3
What is the average normal pH range of blood?
7.35-7.45
The special type of hemoglobin present in fetal red blood cells is ________.
hemoglobin F ( Hbf )
Which of the choices below is the parent cell for all formed elements of blood?
Pluripotent stem cell (hemocytoblast)
Which blood type is called the universal donor?
O
Which of the following is a regulatory function of blood?
maintenance of normal pH in body tissues
Which of the following is a protective function of blood?
prevention of blood loss
Which of the statements below is an incorrect or false statement?
Blood typing for the Kell, Lewis, and Duffy factors is always done before a blood transfusion.
Which of the following might trigger erythropoiesis?
hypoxia of EPO-producing cells
As red blood cells age ________.
membranes "wear out" and the cells become damaged -
100-120 days
An individual who is blood type AB negative can ________.
receive any blood type in moderate amounts except that with the Rh antigen
The most abundant plasma protein is ________.
albumin
When neither anti-A sera nor anti-B sera clot on a blood plate with donor blood, the blood is type ________.
O
Select the correct statement regarding blood cell formation.
Red marrow is the main site of blood cell formation throughout adult life.
Blood volume restorers include all of the following except ________.
packed cells
James has a hemoglobin measurement of 16 g/100 ml blood. This is ________.
within the normal range
Which of these is not a normal plasma protein?
thromboplastin
All of the following can be expected with polycythemia except ________.
low blood viscosity
No visible cytoplasmic granules are present in ________.
monocytes
Which of the following is not a phase of hemostasis?
fibrinolysis
Place the following in correct developmental sequence:
2, 4, 3, 1
proerythroblast, late erythroblast, normoblast, reticulocyte
A lack of intrinsic factor, leading to a deficiency of vitamin B12 and large pale cells called macrocytes, is characteristic of ________.
pernicious anemia
The slowest step in the clotting process is ________.
formation of prothrombin activator
Thromboembolic disorders ________.
include embolus formation, a clot moving within the circulatory system
Which of the following is not a cause of bleeding disorders?
excess secretion of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)
Which of the following is characteristic of all leukocytes?
they are nucleated
Which of the following is true about blood plasma?
It is about 90% water
Platelets ________.
stick to the damaged area of a blood vessel and help seal the break
Which sequence is correct for the following events?
3,4,1,2
formation of thromboplastin, prothrombin → thrombin, fibrinogen → fibrin, clot reaction
Fred's blood was determined to be AB positive. What does this mean?
There are no antibodies to A, to B, or to Rh antigens in the plasma.
Sickling of red blood cells can be produced in those with sickle-cell anemia by ________.
travel at high altitude and vigorous exercise
All of the following conditions impair coagulation except ________.
vascular spasm
When can erythroblastosis fetalis not possibly happen in the child of an Rh negative mother?
when the father is Rh-
Complications of aplastic anemia generally do not include ________.
increase of leukocytes as a result of erythrocyte loss
Blood is a ________.
suspension
What organ in the body regulates erythrocyte production?
kidney
The formed element ________ can kill parasitic worms.
eosinophil
A(n) ________ is a committed granular leukocyte stem cell that produces neutrophils.
myeloblasts
The rarest leukocyte is the ________.
basophil
Potent platelet aggregates that attract more platelets to the site of an injury are ________ and ________.
ADP and Thromboxane Serotonin
The universal recipient blood type is ________.
AB
When monocytes migrate into the interstitial spaces, they are called ________.
macrophages
Destruction of the hematopoietic components of red marrow leads to a condition called ________.
aplastic anemia
________ is the stage of development in the life of an erythrocyte during which the nucleus is ejected.
normoblast
Hemoglobin is composed of ________ polypeptide chains.
4
List the general factors that limit normal clot growth
removal of clotting factors

Aspirin - an antiprostaglandin that inhibits thromboxane A2
Heparin - an anticoagulant used clinically for pre- and postoperative cardiac care
Warfarin (trade name Coumadin) - used for those prone to atrial fibrillation
When are whole blood transfusions routinely given?
Substantial and rapid blood loss
List the most common causes of bleeding disorders
Thrombocytopenia - condition of decreased circulating platelets with vitamin K deficiency and defective clotting cascade
List one example for each of these three functions of blood: distribution, regulation, and protection
Distribution - delivering O2 from lungs and waste
Regulation - maintenance of normal ph in body tissues
Protection - prevention of blood loss
List the granulocytes and describe their granules
Neutrophil - fine, faint pink granules
Eosinophil - full of pink-orange granules
Basophil - large dark deep purple ganules
Why is iron not stored or transported in its free form? In what form(s) is it stored or transported in blood?
Because iron can be toxic. Intracellular iron is stored in protein-iron complexes such as ferritin and hemosiderin.

*FYI*
The body stores iron in Hb (65%), the liver, spleen, and bone marrow
Circulating iron is loosely bound to the transport protein transferrin
What determines whether blood is bright red or a dull, dark red?
the amount of oxygen
What is the buffy coat found in centrifuged whole blood?
Leukocytes and platelets
Name the granulocytes and state their average percentage in whole blood.
Neutrophil 50-70%
Eosinophil 2-4%
Basophil .5-1%
Blood plasma
A specialized type of connective tissue in which living the formed elements are suspended in a nonliving fluid matrix called _________?
Hematocrit
Erythrocytes normally constitute about 45% of the total volume of a blood sample, a percentage known as the?
Hematocrit
blood fraction
between 7.35 and 7.45
Blood is slightly alkaline, with a PH ___________, and its temperature is always slightly higher body temperature.
Regulatory functions of blood include
Maintaining appropriate body temperature, Maintaining normal pH in body tissues, and Maintaining adequate fluid volume in the circulatory system.
Protective functions of blood include
Preventing blood loss, and Preventing infection.
Albumin
Accounts for some 60% of plasma protein and is the major blood protein contributing to the plasma osmotic pressure.
Osmotic Pressure
The pressure that helps to keep water in the bloodstream.
Formed Elements
Erythrocytes, Leukocytes, and platelets have some unusual features
Globin
consists of four polypeptide chains 2 alpha and 2 beta, each binding a ring like heme group.
Hematopoiesis or Hemopoiesis
Blood cell formation
Hemo, Hemato
Blood
Poiesis
To make
Red Bone Marrow
Hemopoiesis occurs in the
Hemocytoblast
Stemcell*
Pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell
Another name for the hemocytoblast
Kidneys
What play a major role in EPO production
Hypoxic
When certain kidney cells become ________oxygen enzymes are unable to carry out their normal functions of degrading an intracellular signaling molecule called hypoxia-inducible factors.
Hypoxic
have inadequate oxygen
Hypoxia-Inducible factor
As _________ accumulates it accelerates the synthesis and release of erythropoietin.
Red blood cells
___________are confined to the bloodstream, and they carry out their functions in the blood.
White Blood cells
__________ are able to slip out of the capillary blood vessels in a process called diapedesis, and the circulatory system is simply their means of transport to areas of the body where they are needed to mount inflammatory or immune responses.
Diapedesis
leaping across
Positive Chemotaxis
By following the chemical trail of molecules released by damaged cells or other leukocytes, a phenomenon called ________, they can pinpoint areas of tissue damage and infection and gather there in large numbers to destroy foreign substances or dead cells.
Eosinophils
The most important role of _________ is to lead the counterattack against parasitic worms, such as flatworms and roundworms.
T Lymphocyte
Function in the immune response by acting directly against virus-infected cells and tumor cells.
B Lymphocyte
give rise to plasma cells, which produce antibodies that are released to the blood.
Antibodies
immunoglobulins
Leukemia
"White blood", refers to a group of cancerous conditions involving white blood cells.
Platelets, Megakaryocytes
are not cells in the strict sense. About one-fourth the diameter of a lymphocyte, they are cytoplasmic fragments of extraordinarily large cells called ______
Platelets
By sticking to the damaged site, __________ form a temporary plug that helps seal the break.
Thormbus
A clot that develops and persists in an unbroken blood vessel is called a _____________
Embolus
If the thrombus breaks away from the vessel wall and floats freely in the bloodstream, it becomes an ____________
Hemophilia
The term _______________ refers to several different hereditary bleeding disorders that have similar signs and sypmtoms.
Mediastinum
The medial cavity of the thorax
12 14 Rib Intercoastal
The heart extends obliquely for ___ to___ cm from the 2nd ____ to the 5th __________ space.
Epicardium, Myocardium, Endocardium
The heart wall, richly supplied with blood vessels, is composed of three layers: the ___________, the _____________, and the ___________.
Papillary Muscles
Still other muscle bundles, the conelike ____________________ (2 words) , which play a role in valve function, project into the ventricular cavity .
Pulmonary Veins , Left
The freshly oxygenated blood is carried by the ___________________ (2 words) back to the _______ side of the heart
Systemic Circuit Pump
The left side of the heart is the _______________________ (3 words)
Coronary Circulation
The _____________________ ( 2 words), the functional blood supply of the heart.
Cardiac Veins
After passing through the capillary beds of the myocardium, the venous blood is collected by the ______________________ (2 words), whose path roughly follow those of the coronary arteries .
Coronary Sinus
These veins join together to form an enlarged vessel called the ____________________ (2 words), which empties the blood into the right atrium
Tricuspid, Mitral
The two atrioventricular (AV) valves - the right AV valve has three flexible cusps therefore it is known as the _________ valve- the Left AV valve has two flexible cusps and is known as the ________ valve or bicuspid.
Aortic,Pulmonary Valves
The ________ and _________________ ( 2 ws) guard the bases of the large arteries issuing from the ventricles and prevent backflow into the associated ventricles
Intrinsic cardiac conduction system
The ______________________________ (4ws) consist of noncontractile cardiac cells specialized to initiate and distribute impulses throughout the heart, so that it depolarizes and contracts in an orderly sequential manner.
Autorthythmic cells
THE _________________ (2ws) making up the intrinsic conduction system do not maintain a stable resting membrane, They have a unstable resting potential that continuously depolarizes.
sinoatrial node, atrioventricular node, atrioventricular bundle, right and left bundle branches, and ventricular walls.
Autorthythmic cardiac cells are found in the following areas ____________ (5)
Sinoatrial (SA) node
The cresent-shaped _________________ is located in the right atrial wall, just inferior to the entrance of the superior vena cava.
Heart black
Because the only route for impulse transmission from atria to ventricles is through the AV node, any damage to the AV node interferes with the ability of the ventricles to recieve pacing impulses. This is referred to as a ___________ __________.
P wave
depolarization wave from the SA node through the atria.
QRS complex
the large _________ results from ventricular depolarization.
T wave
The ___________ is caused by ventricular repolarization
Heart sounds
These ______________, often descrived as lub-dup, or (doom-doom), are associated with the closing of heart valves.
Cardiac Output (CO)
_________________ is the amount of blood pumped out by each ventricle in 1 minute.
Cardiac reserve
________________ is the difference between resting and maximal CO.
pg 684 ???
...
Foramen ovale
The _____________ connects the two atria and allows blood entering the right heart to bypass the pulmonary circuit and the collapsed, nonfunctional fetal lungs.
Ateries
___________ carry blood away from the heart chambers
Veins
_________ carry carry blood towards the heart chambers.
Tunic intima, endothelium
The innermost tunic is the ____________. This tunic contains the ______________.
Tunic media
The ________________ is the bulkiest layer in the arteries, which bear the chief responsibility for maintaining blood pressure continuous blood circulation.
Muscular, or Distrivuting , ateries
Distally the elastic arteries give the way to the __________, or __________, ___________, which deliver blood to specific body organs and account for most of the named arteries studied in the anatomy laboratory.
Capillaries
Given their location and the thinness of their walls, _________ are ideally suited for their role-exchange of materials between the blood and the interstitial fluid.
Fenestrated capillaries
________________ are riddled with oval pores, or fenestration.
Precapillary sphincter
A cuff of smooth muscle fibers, called a ____________, surronunds the root of each true capillary at the metarteriole and acts as a valve to regulate blood flow into the capillary.
Blood viscosity, vessel lenght, and vessel diameter
There are three important sources of resistance.
Pulse pressure
Ther difference betweeen the systolic and diastolic pressures is called the ____________.
Vasomotor center
_______________ a cluster of neurons in the medulla.
Cardiovascular center
This center plus the cardiac centers described earlier make up the _______________ that integrates blood pressure control by altering cardiac output and blood vessel disameter.
Baroreceptors
When arterial blood pressure rises, it stretches _______________, neural receptors located in the caratid sinuses (dilations in the internal carotid arteries, which provide the major blood supply to the brain), in the aortic arch, and in the walls of nearly every large artery of the nek and thorax.
Norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine
During periods of stress, the adrenal gland releases _____________ and _____________ to the blood, and both hormones enhance the sympathetic fight or flight response.
Autoregulation
_________________ the automatic adjustment of blood flow to each tissue on proporition to the tissue's requirements at any instant.
Capillary beds
When the skin surface is exposed to heat, warm blood flushes into the ______________ and heat radiates from the skin surface.
diffusion
Oxygen, carbon dioxide, most nutrients, and metabolic wastes pass between the blood and interstitial fluid by ____________.
Hydrostatic pressure
______________ is the force exerted by a fluid pressing against a wall.
Colloid osmotic pressure
_________________, the force opposing hydrostatic pressure, is created by the presence in a fluid of large nondiffusible molecules, such as plasma proteins, that are unable to cross the capillary wall.
Hypovolemic shock
The most common form of shock is _______________, which results from large scale loss of blood, as might follow acute hemorrhage, severe vomiting or diarrhea, or extensive burns.
Cardiogenic shock
______________, or pump failure, occurs when the heart is so inefficient that it cannot sustain adequate circulation. its usual cause is myocardial damage, as might follow numerous myocardial infarcts.
Lymphatic system
1. lymphatic vessels
2.lymph
3.lymph nodes
the _________________ actually consists of three parts. 1. a meandering network of _____________,
2. _________, the fluid contained in those vessels, and
3. __________, that cleanse the lymph as it passes through them.
Lymph
once interstitial fluid enters the lymphatics it is called _________.
Lymphatic capillaries
The lymphatic vessels form a one way system in which lymph flows only toward the heart. this transport system begins in microscopic blind ended _____________. these capillaries weave between the tissue cells and blood capillaries in the loose connective tissues of the body.
Lacteals
Highly specialized lymphatic capillaries called ___________ are present in the fingerlike villi of the intestinal mucosa.
White, Clear
The lymph draining from the digestive viscera is milky ________ rather than _________ because the lacteals play a major role in absorbing digested fats from the intestine.
Chyle
Fatty lymph called __________ (juice), is also delivered to the blood via the lymphatic stream.
Lymphatic trunks
___________ Are formed by the union of the largest collecting vessels, and drain fairly large areas of the body.
Right Lymphatic Duct
The _______________ drains lymph from the right upper limb and the right side of the head and thorax.
Thoracic Duct
The much larger ____________ receives lymph from the rest of the body.
Lymphatic System
____________ lacks an organ that acts as a pump.
Lymphatic Vessels
Under normal conditions, ____________ are low pressure conduits, and the same mechanisms that promote venous return in blood vessels act here as well --- the milking action of active skeletal muscles, pressure changes in the thorax during breathing, and valves to prevent backflow.
Lymphocytes
____________, the main warriors of immune system, arise in red bone marrow (along with other formed elements.)
Lymphoid Macrophages
____________ play a crucial role in body protection and in the immune response by phagocytizing foreign substances and by helping to activate T cells.
Houses and Provides a proliferation site for lymphocytes
Lymphoid tissue is an important component of the immune system, mainly because_________
Lymphoid follicles (nodules)
_____________ are solid spherical bodies consisting of tightly packed reticular element and cells.
Lymph Node
The principal lymphoid organs in the body are the ________, which cluster along the lymphatic vessels of the body.
Cortex & Medulla
The lymph node has two histologically distinct regions,the_____ &______
Medullary Cords
__________ are thin inward extensions from the cortical lymphoid tissue, and contain both types of lymphocytes plus plasma cells.
Hilum, efferent lymphatic vessels
The lymph meanders through these sinuses and finally exits the node at its ______, the indented region on the concave side, via _____________
Spleen
__________ is about the size of a fist and is the largest lymphoid organ.
Thymus
The bilbed __________ has important functions primarily during the early years of life.
T Lymphocyte
The thymus is the site where the __________ precursors mature to become immunocomptetent lymphocytes.
Tonsils
______ forms a ring of lymphatic tissue around the entrance to the pharynx (throat), where they appear as swellings of mucosa.
Pharyngeal tonsil
_________ are referred to as adenoids if they are enlarged.
Peyer's Patches, small intestines
____________ are aggregated lymphoid nodules, are large clusters of lymphoid follicles, structurally similar to the tonsils. They are located in the wall of the distal portion of the __________.
erythrocytes
red blood cells
leukocytes
white blood cells
thrombocytes
platelets
90
% water in plasma
gas, hormones, nutrients, waste
list alphabetically material in plasma other than water (seperate with commas)
erythrocytes
most dense material in blood
plasma
least dense material in blood
55
% of blood that is plasma
45
% of blood that is buffy coat and erythrocytes
100.4
temperature of blood (in Fahrenheit)
more
scarlet red blood has (less/more) _______ oxygen
less
dark red blood has (less/more) _______ oxygen
7.35
lowest normal ph value for blood
7.45
highest normal ph value for blood
water
blood is 3 to 4 times more viscous than ________
salt
reason why blood is more viscous than water. water is attracted to _______
hematocrit
a measurement of the percentage of packed red blood cells in a given volume of blood
47
range of hematocrit for males (+/- 5%)
42
range of hematocrit for females (+/- 5%)
muscles
males have higher hematocrit because they have more __________
biconcave disc
RBC are a ________ shape
organelles
RBC's have no _________
120
RBC's live for _____ days
4
Hemoglobin have ____ iron containing sections
hemoglobin
iron-containing protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen for delivery to cells
erythropoiesis
RBC creation
matrix
plasma is the _______ of blood
formed elements
erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets are collectively called __________
centrifuge
an apparatus that uses centrifugal force to separate particles from a suspension
buffy coat
leukocytes and platelets compose this after centrifugation
38
temp of blood in celcius
8
blood composes what % of body weight?
5-6
males typically have _____ Liters of blood
4-5
females typically have ______ Liters of blood
100
Plasma contains over ______ dissolved solutes
albumin
composes 60% of plasma proteins
globulins
composes 36% of plasma proteins
fibrinogen
composes 4% of plasma proteins
liver
most plasma proteins are produced by the ______
kidneys
blood transports waste to the lungs and the ______
hormones
blood transports these endocrine system molecules
plasma proteins
________ and platelets initiate clot formation
250 million
each red blood cell contains about ________ molecules of hemoglobin
valene
Amino acid which is defective in hemoglobin that causes sickle cell
folic acid, iron, protein, vitamin B12
alphabetically name the items necessary to produce healthy hemoglobin (seperated by commas)
folic acid
lack of this can cause neural tube defects in a fetus
hypoxia
deficiency of oxygen
kidneys
all blood is filtered through the _______
kidneys
organ that produces EPO
erythropoieitin
hormone that stimulates bone marrow to produce RBC's
red bone marrow
erythrocytes are produced in ________
cancellous bone
red bone marrow is found in ________
pus
Thick yellowish-white fluid that is formed in infected wounds. It is composed of dead and dying white blood cells (principally neutrophils), tissue debris, and dead microorganisms.
hemocytoblast
stem cells that give rise to all the formed elements of the blood
erythroblast
immature form of erythrocyte with a nucleus
megakaryoblast
The precursor to Megakaryocyte, which becomes platelets
megakaryocyte
A large cell in the bone marrow that has an irregularly-shaped, multi-lobed nucleus, and that produces platelets
hemocytoblast, erythroblast, erythrocyte
list, from immaturity to maturity, the cells involved in erythropoesis (separated by commas)
hemocytoblast, megakaryoblast, mekakaryocyte, thrombocyte
list, from immaturity to maturity, the cells involved in platelet production (separated by commas)
Heme
identify A
beta chains
identify B
alpha chains
identify C
plasma
buffy coat
erythrocytes
pathogen
bacteria, virus, or other microorganisms that can cause disease.
mucous membranes, skin, stomach acid
list in alphabetical order the first lines of innate defense
lysosome
cell organelle filled with enzymes needed to break down certain materials in the cell
leukocytosis
increase in the number of white blood cells
margination
When Phagocytes adhere themselves to capillary walls and perform diapedisis, walking through capillary and tissues to get to site of infection.
diapedesis
passage of blood cells (especially white blood cells) through intact capillary walls and into the surrounding tissue
chemotaxis
movement by a cell or organism in reaction to a chemical stimulus
phagosome
Intracellular vesicle containing material taken up by phagocytosis.
lysozyme
enzyme that kills bacteria
antigen-presenting cells
B cells, macrophages, dendritic cells
major histocompatability complex
genetic region that encodes "self" proteins. MHC proteins function as molecular reference points (several 100 genes in human pop)
MHC type 2
macrophage,dendritic and B cells. Most selective. Just showing the foreign object
antigen
any substance (as a toxin or enzyme) that stimulates the production of antibodies
inflammation
limits spread of pathogens, removal of damaged cells, increases molecular energy
hyperemia
increased blood in an organ or other body part
swelling
an increase in capillary permeability
mast cell
a large connective tissue cell that contains histamine and heparin and serotonin which are released in allergic reactions or in response to injury or inflammation
histamine
a regulating body substance released in excess during allergic reactions causing swelling and inflammation of tissues
pyrexia
Fever (a rise in the temperature of the body)
onset
first stage of pyrexia - temperature rise, clammy hands
stadium
second stage of pyrexia - temperature levels out
defervescence
third stage of pyrexia - temperature returns to normal
seizure
a rapid temperature rise in the body can cause ______
decrease
(increase or decrease) fevers effect on the reproduction of bacteria and viruses
increase
(increase or decrease) fever's effect on metabolic rate
increase
(increase or decrease) fever's effect on tissue repair
increase
(increase or decrease) fevers effect on interferon activity
humoral response
The branch of acquired immunity that involves the activation of B cells and that leads to the production of antibodies, which defend against bacteria and viruses in body fluids.
membrane-bound antibodies
antibody sticks in membrane (B cell antigen receptor)
immunoglobulins
Antibodies such as IgA, IgE, IgC, IgM, and IgD that are secreted by plasma cells in humoral immunity.
1
each b-cell contains (number) ____ type(s) of membrane-bound antibodies
epitope
a localized region on the surface of an antigen that is chemically recognized by antibodies; also called antigenic determinant
memory cell
long-lasting lymphocyte formed during the primary immune response that is reactivated on exposure to the same pathogen, quickly producing many clones
plasma cell
An activated B cell that is secreting antibody.
antigen-antibody complex
Structure formed when the antibody binds to the antigen to help disable a pathogen
opsonization
process whereby opsonins make an invading microorganism more susceptible to phagocytosis
Blood
Made up of plasma & formed elements
Blood
Complex transport medium that performs vital pickup & delivery service for the body
Blood
Keystone of body's heat-regulating mechanism
Young adult female has approximately how many liters of blood?
4-5 liters
Young adult male has approximately how many liters of blood?
5-6 liters
Blood volume varies according to
Age, Body Type, Sex, and Method of Measurement
Erythrocytes
Another name for red blood cells (RBC's)
Mature red blood cells or erythrocytes
Have no nucleus & shaped like tiny biconcave disks; do not contain ribosomes, mitochondria and other organelle typical of most body cells; primary component is hemoglobin; most numerous of the formed elements
Hemoglobin
Critical role of red blood cells in the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide depend on
Carbonic Anhydrase
Enzyme in RBC's that catalyzes a reaction that joins carbon dioxide and water to form carbonic acid
Carbonis Acid
Dissociates and generates bicarbonate ions, which diffuse out of the RBC and serve to transport carbon dioxide in the blood plasma
Within each RBC there are approximately how many molecules of hemoglobin?
200-300 million molecules
Hemoglobin
Made up of 4 globin chains, with each attached to a heme molecule
Oxyhemoglobin
Hemoglobin is able to unite with 4 oxygen molecules to form
Oxyhemoglobin
This allows RBC's to transport oxygen where it is needed
Who has the greater amount of hemoglobin males or females?
Males
Anemia
A decrease in number or volume of functional RBC's in a given unit of whole blood
Erythropoiesis
Entire process of RBC formation
RBC formation begins where?
In the red bone marrow
RBC formation begins in the red bone marrow as what?
Hematopoietic stem cells
4 days or 96 hours
Entire maturation of RBC's
Erythrocytes/red blood cells
Created and destroyed at approximately 100 million per minute in an adult
Homeostatic mechanisms
Operate to balance the number of cells formed against the number of cells destroyed
105-120 days
Life span of a circulating RBC averages
Mecrophage cells phagocytes
The aged, abnormal or fragmented erythrocytes
Amino acids, iron, and bilirobin
When hemoglobin is broken down this is released
Leukocytes
Another name for white blood cells
Granulocytes (WBC with cytoplasmic granules) include what 3 leukocytes that have granules in cytoplasm
Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils
Neutrophils
Make up approximately 65% of total WBC count in a normal blood sample
Neutrophils
Highly mobile & very active phagocytic cells
Neutrophils
WBC capable of diapedisis
Neutrophils
WBC whose cytoplasmic granules contain lysosomes
Eosinophils
Account for 2-5% of circulating WBC's
Eosinophils
WBC numerous in lining of respiratory & digestive tracts
Eosinophils
WBC with weak phagocytes
Eosinophils
WBC's capable of ingesting inflammatory chemical and proteins associated with antigen-antibody reaction complexes
Eosinophils
WBC that provides protection against infections caused by parasitic worms & allergic reaction
Basophils
Accounts for only 0.5-1% of circulating WBC's
Basophils
WBC motile & capable of diapedisis
Basophils
WBC's whose cytoplasmic granules contain histamine and heparin
There are 2 types of granulocytes (WBC's without cytoplasmic granules)
Lymphocytes, and Monocytes
Lymphocytes
Smallest of the WBC's
Lymphocytes
2nd most numerous WBC
Lymphocytes
Account for approximately 25% of circulating WBC's
T - Lymphocytes
This lymphocyte directly attacks an infected or cancerous cell
B - Lymphocytes
These lymphocytes produce antibodies against specific antigens
Monocytes
Largest leukocytes
Monocytes
WBC mobile and highly phagocytic cells
1 mm3 of normal blood usually contains what amount of leukocytes
5000-9000 leukocytes
Why do WBC numbers have clinical significance?
Because they change with certain abnormal conditions
Where do granular and agranular leukocytes mature from?
The undifferentiated hematopoietic stem cell
What originates in red bone marrow?
Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils, A few lymphocytes & monocytes
Where do most lymphocytes and monocytes develop from?
Hematopoietic stem cells in lymphatic tissue
In circulating blood, platelets are small, pale bodies that appear as what?
Irregular spindles or oval disks
3 important properties of platelets
Agglutination, Adhesiveness, and Aggregation
What is the average platelet count of an adult?
250,000/mm3 of blood
What is the normal range for platelets?
150,000-400,000/mm3 of blood
Platelets
Plays an important role in hemostasis & blood coagulation
Homeostasis
Refers to stoppage of blood flow; however, if injury is extensive, the blood clotting mechanism is activated to assist
1-5 seconds
How long after injury to vessel wall, platelets adhere to damage endothelial lining and to each other, forming a platelet plug
Temporary plated plug
An important step in hemostasis
Normal platelets (positive charge)
Adhere to damaged capillary wall and underlying collagen fibers, which both have a negative charge
"Sticky platelets"
Form physical plug and secrete several chemicals included in the coagulation process
Where & how are platelets formed?
In red bone marrow, lungs & spleen by fragmentation of megakaryocytes
Formation and lifespan of platelets
7-10 days
How many ABO groups are there?
4
How is ABO blood groups named?
According to antigens present on RBC membranes
4 types of ABO groups
A-antigen A on RBC, B-antigen B on RBC, AB-antigen A&B on RBC, and O-no antigens on RBC
Type O
universal donor
Type AB
universal recipient
Rh+ blood
Means Rh antigen is present on the RBC's
Rh-blood
Means Rh is not present on the RBC's
What antibodies are not normally present in blood?
Anti Rh antibodies
What causes anti Rh antibodies?
Rh-blood comes in contact with Rh+ blood
Liquid part of blood; clear, straw-colored fluid
Plasma
Plasma
This part of human blood is made up of 90% water and 10% solutes
What % of plasma solute is protein?
6-8% protein
3 main compounds of plasma solutes
Albumins, Globulins, and Fibrinogen
Albumins
Help maintain osmotic balance of the blood
Globulins
Essential component of the immunity mechanism
Fibrinogen
Key role in blood clotting
Plasma proteins
Have an essential role in maintaining normal blood circulation
Blood clotting or coagulation
To stop bleeding and prevent loss of vital body fluid in a swift & sure method
Classic theory of coagulation
4 components critical for coagulation: prothrombin, thrombin, fibrinogen, fibrin
Current explanation of coagulation stage I
Production of thromboplastin activator by either: chemicals released from damaged tissues (extrinsic pathway); chemicals present in the blood (intrinsic pathway)
Current explanation of coagulation stage II
Conversion of prothrombin to thrombin
Current explanation of coagulation stage III
Conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin and production of fibrin clot
Factor that opposes clotting
Perfectly smooth surface of the normal endothelial lining of blood vessels does not allow platelets to adhere.
Antithrombins
Substances in the blood that oppose or inactivate thrombin; prevent thrombin from converting fibrinogen to fibrin (e.g., Heparin).
Conditions that hasten clotting
A rough spot in the endothelium and abnormally slow blood flow
Fibrinolysis
Physiological mechanism that dissolves
Fibrinolysin
Enzyme in the blood that catalyzes the hydrolysis of fibrin, causing it to dissolve
Aid clotting dissolution
Fibrinolysis, Fibrinolysin, Additional factors (e.g. Substances that activate profibrinolysin)
Blood plasma
Transports substances, including heat, around the body, linking all body tissues together
Blood plasma transports
This allows substances can be transported between almost any two points in the body.
Blood tissue
Contains formed elements - blood cells and platelets
"RBC's" Red Blood Cells (Erythrocytes)
Assist in the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
"WBC's" White Blood Cells (Leukocytes)
Assist in the defense mechanism of the whole body.
Platelets
Prevent loss of fluid that constitutes the internal environment.
Blood
No organ or system of the body can maintain proper levels of nutrients, gases, or water without direct or indirect help from what?
Blood
Useless unless it continues to transport, defend, and maintain balance.
The ______ is the fluid portion of the blood.
hematocrit
plasma
buffy coat
hemoglobin
plasma
In a centrifuged sample of blood, what makes up the buffy coat?
white blood cells and platelets
red blood cells
plasma
platelets only
white blood cells and platelets
Which of the following is NOT a function of blood?
protection
hormone production
distribution
regulation
hormone production
The main protein in blood plasma is:
hemoglobin.
erythropoietin.
plasmin.
albumin.
albumin.
Which of the following is not a formed element of the blood?
Leukocytes
Platelets
Erythrocytes
Antibodies
Antibodies
In adults, red blood cell production occurs in__________.
the liver
the thymus
red bone marrow
yellow bone marrow
red bone marrow
Bilirubin is cleared from the body by:
the liver.
the pancreas.
the spleen.
the kidneys.
the liver
Which of the following is correctly matched?
Aplastic anemia: results from excessive blood loss
Hemorrhagic anemia: red blood cells rupture
Hemolytic anemia: results from inadequate iron intake
Pernicious anemia: results from a vitamin B12 deficiency
Pernicious anemia: results from a vitamin B12 deficiency
The most abundant leukocytes are:
basophils.
macrophages.
lymphocytes.
neutrophils.
neutrophils.
Platelet formation is regulated by:
interleukin-2.
plasmin.
erythropoietin.
thrombopoietin.
thrombopoietin.
Which of the following is NOT a functional characteristic of leukocytes?
amoeboid motion
positive chemotaxis
diapedesis
leukocytosis
leukocytosis
Which leukocyte functions in phagocytizing bacteria?
lymphocyte
neutrophil
basophil
eosinophil
neutrophil
You observe a large cell with a "U" shaped nucleus. This cell is most likely a(n):
monocyte.
lymphocyte.
eosinophil.
basophil.
monocyte.
The enzyme ______ digests fibrin clots.
plasminogen
fibrinogen
thrombin
plasmin
plasmin
A person who lacks agglutinogens A and B would have blood type:
B.
O.
AB.
A.
O.
Which ABO blood type is considered to be the universal donor?
O
AB
B
A
O
What is an embolus?
an anticoagulant
a stroke
a protein in the coagulation pathway
a blood clot that has broken loose and is floating freely in the blood stream
a blood clot that has broken loose and is floating freely in the blood stream
The first step in hemostasis is:
coagulation.
fibrin production.
vascular spasm.
platelet plug formation.
vascular spasm.
Hemostasis leads to:
white blood cell production.
stoppage of bleeding.
red blood cell production.
heme production.
stoppage of bleeding.
Which plasma constituent is the main contributor to osmotic pressure?
alpha globulins
fibrinogen
albumin
beta globulins
albumin
An abnormal excess of erythrocytes is called__________.
sickle-cell anemia
polycythemia
thalassemia
leukocytosis
polycythemia
Which of the following represents a difference between extrinsic and intrinsic blood clotting cascades?
One leads to the production of prothrombin activator and the other does not.
One is faster than the other.
One is triggered by tissue damage while the other cannot be triggered by tissue damage.
One involves calcium ions while the other does not.
One is faster than the other.
Which of the following scenarios could result in HDN (hemolytic disease of the newborn)?
A+ female pregnant with a B- baby.
B- female pregnant with an AB+ baby.
O+ female pregnant with a B+ baby.
AB- female pregnant with an AB- baby.
B- female pregnant with an AB+ baby.
Choose the compatible transfusion.
Donate type B blood to a recipient with type O blood.
Donate type O blood to a recipient with type AB blood.
Donate type AB blood to a recipient with type B blood.
Donate type A blood to a recipient with type B blood.
Donate type O blood to a recipient with type AB blood.
Which of the following is NOT a part of hemostasis?
coagulation
platelet plug formation
vascular spasm
vascular relaxation
vascular relaxation
What protein involved in coagulation provides the scaffolding for tissue repair?
prothrombin activator
fibrinogen
thrombin
fibrin
fibrin
Which of the following does not stimulate erythrocyte production?
A drop in normal blood oxygen levels
Hyperventilating
Erythropoietin
Testosterone
Hyperventilating