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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
Slavery and Civil War
Terms in this set (41)
How does Eli Whitney's 1793 invention of the cotton gin (short for engine) play a role in the slavery issue?
The cotton gin supported slavery. The cotton gin removed seeds from cotton. The machine created a new demand for slaves to grow and pick more cotton,. After the invention of the cotton gin, slavery became far more profitable. This began a battle between those who benefited from slavery (slave holders) and those who wished to see it end (abolitionists).
Describe abolitionists' efforts in dealing with slavery.
They were against slavery and thought it should be illegal. They wanted to see slavery end and did something about it.
Did abolitionists support or oppose slavery?
Opposed slavery. Many were happy that the war began in order to punish the South.
How does the Underground Railroad play a role as we discuss abolitionists and slave holders?
It opposed slavery. The Underground Railroad was a secret system of abolitionists who helped slaves escape to Canada or out of the U.S.
What did the U.S. Constitution say about slavery before the Civil War?
Slavery was not mentioned in the Constitution prior to the Civil War. The Three-Fifths Clause was used by slave owners to argue that slaves were property. The Supreme Court also held that slaves were considered property
How did the divisive issue of slavery impact politicians?
They were forced to face the divisive issue from time to time. It occasionally turned violent and there were bitter debates
How did many politicians deal with the slavery issue?
Often, politicians would look at compromises, particularly when states chose to become either free or slave.
Missouri Compromise of 1820
Missouri joins the U.S. as a slave state. Maine joins the Union as a free state. The Congress draws a line through the Louisiana Purchase banning slavery north of it.
The Compromise of 1850
California enters as a free state, giving free states a one state advantage in the Senate. To balance this, a strict Fugitive Slave Law is included. This Law supported slavery: All American citizens must help return escaped slaves or face stiff fines ($500 and $1000) and/or imprisonment for 6 months to 1 year.
The Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854
It organized Kansas and Nebraska territories. These territories used popular sovereignty to decide the slavery question. It undid the Missouri Compromise by ignoring the compromise line through the Louisiana Purchase.
Allowed "the people" (as opposed to Congress) to vote on matters that impacted them. Specifically, territories were asked to vote on whether they wanted slavery.
How did Stephen Douglas and Abraham Lincoln deal with issue of slavery?
Douglas remained unclear about slavery. He supported popular sovereignty. He led Congress to pass the Compromise of 1850 and the Kansas-Nebraska Act. He ran for President in 1860.
Lincoln detested slavery but was NOT an abolitionist. He ran against Douglas for president and won.
What impact did Elijah Lovejoy's murder have on the slavery debate?
Opposed slavery. Lovejoy was a Presbyterian minister who was murdered over his publication of an abolitionist newspaper. Four printing presses of his were destroyed in an effort to silence him.
What impact did Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin have on the slavery debate?
It opposed slavery. The abolitionist novel angered Southerners who felt it stereotyped both the slave owner and the slave. It served the anti-slavery cause by making slavery a social issue, more than just political. Stowe's book would become the best-selling novel of the 19th century.
What impact did the Supreme Court's Dred Scott decision have on the slavery debate?
It supported slavery. The Supreme Court ruled that NO African Americans, free or slave, can EVER be citizens. The decision also declared the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional, declaring that Congress could not ban slavery anywhere in the U.S.
What impact did Charles Sumner's beating in the Senate have on the slavery debate?
He opposed slavery. He was an abolitionist Senator from Massachusetts who spoke out in Congress against slave owners. He specifically mentioned fellow Senator Andrew Butler from South Carolina. Butler was personally offended by his remarks. Butler's cousin, Preston Brooks, savagely beat Sumner with a cane. Sumner did not die, but did not return to his seat for nearly 3 years.
What impact did John Brown's crimes in Kansas and Virginia have on the slavery debate?
Opposed slavery. Brown was a militant abolitionist who, with his oldest sons and some followers, murdered five pro-slavery men, hacking them to death with broadswords in Kansas Territory, where all had gathered for the vote.
In Virginia, John Brown failed at inciting a slave revolt. He and his followers were captured - John Brown was hanged on Dec. 2, 1859.
How does the outcome of the election of 1860 lead several Southern states to believe they no longer have political power?
Lincoln becomes president. The South believes that they will no longer have a voice in national government since the President and Congress were against their interests, like slavery.
11 Southern states seceded from the Union months after Lincoln's election. What state left first and when?
South Carolina was the first state to leave: Dec. 20, 1860.
What are these 11 states quitting the Union?
What event started the Civil War?
Confederate's firing on Ft. Sumter in Charleston, S.C. harbor on April 12, 1861. Confederacy the victor.
Both sides in the war had strengths and weaknesses
South's strengths: most of the war would be fought in the South and they would receive support from the local people. Many of the nation's best military leaders were also from the South. North's strengths: more farmland, more factories, more railroad track, more workers in industry, more manufacturing, and greater population to serve the Union armies. North's weakness: most of the country's best known army leaders decided to fight with their state rather than for their country.
Both sides in the war had resource strengths. Which side seemed to have the resource advantage?
The North had greater resources including more railroad track and more farm land.
Four main strategies of the Union in the war
1. blockade of Southern Ports, 2) Capture and control the Mississippi River, 3) Defend Washington DC, and 4) Take Richmond Virginia.
how did the Confederates plan on fighting in the Civil War?
Fight a defensive war. Defend their land until the Northerners got tired of fighting; receive aid from Britain and other European nations; British might support South if they needed cotton from their textile mills.
When the war begins, Lincoln claims his purpose for fighting the seceding Southern states. Why does Lincoln fight the Confederacy? What is his goal?
At the beginning of the war, Lincoln's sole goal is to restore the Union, even if that meant to let slavery continue.
Over the course of the war, pressure builds for Lincoln to broaden the goals for the war. What is he facing pressure to do? What does Lincoln do to respond to this pressure?
As the war continued, Lincoln's goals broaden to end slavery. He issued the Emancipation Proclamation. He also realized how important slavery was to the South's war efforts.
Discuss Battle of Ironclads (Monitor and Merrimack) and connect it to overall strategy of Union
Union goal: blockade of Southern Ports.
Victory - a draw. Fewer than 10 casualties. In the short term, the battle helped the North maintain its blockade of southern ports. In the long term, it changed naval warfare forever. The two ironclads fought over four hours, but neither could gain an advantage. Both ships believed the other had withdrawn from the battle and each claimed a victory.
Discuss Battle of Shiloh and connect it to overall strategy of Union.
Union goal: capture and control the Mississippi River.
Union won. Casualties: 23,741. Significant because Grant's victory enabled him to continue to march to control portions of the Mississippi.
Discuss Battle of Antietam and connect it to overall strategy of Union.
Union goal: Defend Washington DC
Union won. Casualties: 26,134. First instance when Confederates departed from their planned strategy to attack the North. This is the BLOODIEST SINGLE DAY of the war. Lincoln uses the victory to announce the preliminary emancipation of southern slaves.
Discuss Battle of Vicksburg and connect it to overall strategy of Union
Union goal: capture and control the Mississippi River.
Union won. Lasted 6 weeks. Casualties: 35,825. With the capture of Vicksburg, the Union completed its goal of controlling the entire Mississippi River. Surrender comes one day after Gettysburg - a clear marker that the Confederate cause is nearing exhaustion.
Discuss Battle of Gettysburg and connect it to overall strategy of Union
Union goal: Defend Washington DC
Union won. Casualties: 51,112. Bloodiest battle of the war.
Discuss Siege at Petersburg and connect it to overall strategy of Union
Union goal: Take Richmond Virginia
lasted 9 months. Union won. Union took Richmond after the siege. The war would end one week later. Lee's army is dwindling - the Union army constantly growing.
Total War Strategy: What does total war strategy entail?
all-out attacks aimed at destroying an enemy's army, its resources and its people will to fight.
How does Sherman's March to the Sea connect to total war strategy?
Sherman and his army destroyed many resources in the South including buildings, crops, livestock and tore up railroad tracks
Where does the surrender of Robert E Lee take place?
Appomattox Court House
When does the surrender of Robert E Lee take place?
April 9, 1865
What are the surrender terms Grant offered to Lee and the Confederates?
Confederates had only to give up their weapons, horses and to leave in peace.
What surprise does Grant have waiting for Lee at Arlington House in Virginia?
Grant offered very generous surrender terms; they only had t give up their weapons and they could live in peace.
Lincoln assassination. Who is the assassin?
John Wilkes Booth
Who else was targeted in the assassin attack?
vice president and secretary of state
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