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Algebra (Chap 1)
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Gravity
Key Concepts:
Terms in this set (50)
A set-
a collection of objects or numbers
Opposites-
2 numbers are opposite if they are on different sides of zero and the same distance from zero on a number line (ex: -5 = 5)
Non negative-
not negative numbers
(ex: zero or positive numbers)
Natural numbers (or counting numbers)-
are the numbers in the set (1,2,3,4,...) The 3 dots (...) indicates that the number list continues without end
Whole numbers-
are the natural numbers and the number zero
(ex: 0,1,2,3,4,...)
Integers-
consist of natural numbers, the opposites of the natural numbers, and zero (ex:...,-3,-2,-1,0,1,2,3,...)
Zero is neither-
positive nor negative
Positive numbers-
numbers greater than zero (that lie to the right of the zero on the number line)
Negative numbers-
the numbers less than zero (to the left of zero on the number line)
Rational numbers-
are the set of numbers that can be written by dividing one integer by another integer; so long as we do not divide by zero (ex: 7/8 7 is divided by eight, -1 1/2 is 3/2 as an improper fraction, or negative 3 divided by 2)
Zero is undefined-
it has no mathematical meaning
Irrational numbers-
cannot be written by dividing two intergers
Equal sign-
placed between 2 numbers that have the same value (=)
Numerator-
top number in fraction notation
(ex: 1/3, 1 is the numerator)
Denominator-
bottom number in fraction notation
(ex: 1/3, 3 is the denominator)
Place value for decimals-
thousands, hundreds, tens, units (to the left of the decimal)
tenths, hundredths, thousandths, ten thousandths (to the right of the decimal)
Factors-
2 or more numbers being multiplied
Prime number-
a number greater than one with no integer factors except 1 and itself
Reciprocals-
two numbers that multiply to give 1
Input-output tables-
what to do to the input to get the output
variable-
a letter or symbol that can represent any number from some set.
Equation-
a statement of equality between two quantities.
(an = sign separates the quantities)
Property-
a basic statement that is true for operations, a given set of numbers, or a set of geometric shapes
Area of a rectangle-
multiply the L x W
Area of a parallelogram-
multiply the base and the height (b x h = a)
Area of a triangle-
multiply 1/2, base and height (a= 1/2 b* h)
Area of a square-
multiply the length, s, of the side by itself
Area of a circle-
multiply pi (3.14) and the square of r to get A
Sum-
answer to an addition problem
(ex: Louisa has a sum of money)
Difference-
answer to a subtraction problem
(ex: bill & George had a difference of opinion)
Product-
answer to a multiplication product
(ex: the manufacturer makes a quality product)
Quotient-
answer to a division problem
(ex: the quotient of 30 and six is five)
Constant-
a number, letter, or symbol whose value is fixed
Expression-
any combination of signs, numbers, constants, and variables with operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division
Numerical coefficient-
the sign and number multiplying the variable or variables
Percent-
means per 100 or division by 100
Even numbers-
integers divisible by 2
Odd numbers-
integers not divisible by 2
Cartesian coordinates-
a pair of numbers to indicate the position of a point on a flat surface by the points distance between the two lines
Coordinate plane-
the flat surface
(position direction is up and to the right)
Coordinate graphs-
AKA Cartesian coordinate graphs
Horizontal axis-
or X axis, the number line that goes left to right
Vertical axis-
or y axis, the number line that runs up and down
Origin-
the point where the axes cross on the graph
Quadrants-
the number lines that divide the plane into four sections
Ordered pairs-
because the order of the numbers is important. (Cartesian coordinates are placed in parentheses)
The first number on a coordinate plane-
is x, describes the horizontal distance from the origin (middle) to the x-axis, positive numbers are to the right, negative numbers are to the left
The second number on a coordinate plane-
is y, describes the vertical distance from the x-axis, positive numbers are up, negative numbers are down
Graph-
(or plot)
Scale-
what numbers to use for the marks or labels on an axis
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