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Topic 2: Ozone
Terms in this set (43)
What ozone measuring technique uses back-scatter of laser light?
What ozone measuring technique is associated with electrochemical measurement.
What ozone measuring technique uses the backscatter of solar UV?
What ozone measuring technique us absorption of UV light by the atmosphere?
The reaction of ClONO₂ + HCl →Cl₂ + HONO₂ (nitric acid) occurs on the surface of Type I ice in polar stratospheric clouds during the Antarctic winter. (True or False)
Precipitation of Type II polar stratospheric clouds revmoves NOx type species from the Antarctic atmosphere. (True or False)
O₃ concentrations over Antarctica are lowest during the winter because O₃ formation is slow due to slow photo-dissociation of O₂ (True or False)
During the Antarctic winter, the polar vortex draws ozone-depleted air from mid-latitudes into the atmosphere over Antarctica. (True or False)
What is the energy change, in kJ/mol, for the reaction:
CO₂ + O → CO + O₂
Use the tables at the end of the Topic 1 PP.
On a per-photon basis, UVB tends to cause more damage than UVA. (True or False)
A factor causing O₃ concentration to be low at the top of the stratosphere is that the number densities of gases are low so that the required collisions are very infrequent. (True or False)
The Montreal Protocol specified a phased removal of ozone-depleting chemical (with some exception allowed). (True or False)
CFCs have low ozone-depleting potential because they break down in the troposphere and do not reach the stratosphere. (True or False)
False (HCFCs are more reactive with hydrogen so they break down before reaching the stratosphere).
HCFCs have lower ozone depleting potentials than CFCs because they release F atoms instead of Cl atoms in the stratosphere. (True or False)
Halons differ from CFCs in that they include Br atoms in place of some Cls. (True or False)
O₃ + O → 2O₂
2O₃ → 3O₂
What are the two overall net reactions for the catalytic destruction of ozone in the stratosphere?
Ozone holes are as significant over the Arctic as over the Antarctic. (True or False)
Both O₃ and O₂
The primary gaseous species absorbing light between 200 and 300 nm are __________.
Br + O₃ → BrO + O₂
What is the first step in the normal bromine-based cycle for stratospheric ozone destruction?
O₂ ₋₋hv <200nm→ 2O
O₂ + O + M → O₃ +M
O₃ ₋₋₋wl < 320 nm→ O₂ + O
O₃ + O → 2O₂
What are the steps in the basic Chapman mechanism?
Ozone decomposition catalyst
Classify as "ozone decomposition catalyst", "non-ozone active", or "reservoir species": Br atoms
Classify as "ozone decomposition catalyst", "non-ozone active", or "reservoir species": HCl
Classify as "ozone decomposition catalyst", "non-ozone active", or "reservoir species": HF
Classify as "ozone decomposition catalyst", "non-ozone active", or "reservoir species": ClONO₂
Dobson Unit (DU)
The thickness (in 0.01 mm units) of overhead O₃ is compressed to a pure gas at STP.
What is the wavelength range of UVA
280 nm ₋ 320 nm
What is the wavelength range of UVB
< 280 nm
What is the wavelength range of UVC
a combination of light scattering and molecular absorption
The solar spectrum reaching the surface of the Earth differs from the spectrum at the top of atmosphere primarily because of _____________.
ozone decomposition catalyst
Classify as "ozone decomposition catalyst", "non-ozone active", or "reservoir species": NO
Low concentrations of O₂ and M (needed for steps 1&2)
What factor causing ozone to be low at the top of the stratosphere?
Strongly absorbs at wavelengths ~ 180 nm
Some absorbance ~ 240 nm
Absorbs ~ all UV with wavelengths of <160 mn
What wavelengths does O₂ absorb UV?
Starts absorbing at wavelengths of ~320 nm
Absorbs ~ all UV with wavelengths of < 280 nm
What wavelengths does O₃ absorb UV?
True (greater transmittance of shorter wavelengths)
When there is a small decrease in O₃, there is a significant increase in the % transmittance of UVB (true or false)
All short wavelength light (<200nm) absorbed higher in stratsophere (cannot photlyze O₂ to O atoms in step 1 and cannot make O₃ in step 2.
Why is ozone low at the bottom of the stratosphere?
NOx (NO, NO₂), HCl, HBr, SO₂
What chemical species do NOT reach the stratosphere?
N₂O, CH₄, CH₃Cl, CH₃Br
What chemical species do reach the stratosphere?
NO + O₃ → NO₂ + O₂
NO₂ + O → NO + O₂
(NO regenerated, catalytic destruction of O₃)
Net 1 Cycle of NO in the catalytic destruction of ozone?
2O₃ → 3O₂ (destruction of ozone)
What is the general result of all Net Cycle II reactions
During the Antarctic winter, the polar vortex prevents air from mid-latitudes from entering the atmosphere over Antarctica. (True of False)
Polar stratospheric clouds absorb Cl₂ from the atmosphere. (True or False)
The sharp decline in O₃ over Antarctica each spring is due to the release of ClONO₂ from polar stratospheric clouds. (True or False)
O₃ concentrations over Antarctica are lowest during the summer because of photo-dissociation of O₃ is rapid during that season. (True or False)
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