Chapter 3 Quiz

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Terms in this set (...)

culture
knowledge, values, customs, and physical objects that are shared by members of a society
material side
the concrete, tangible, objects of culture
nonmaterial side
ideas, beliefs
society
a specific territory inhabited by people who share a common culture
instincts
innate, unlearned, patterns of behavior
reflexes
automatic reaction to physical stimulus
drives
impulse to reduce discomfort
sociobiology
the study of biological basis of human behavior
symbols
a thing that stands for or represents something else
how are language and culture related
language and culture are intertwined. some cultures interpret language differently
the sapir-whorf hypothesis
hypothesis of linguistic relativity - theory stating that our idea of reality depends largely on language
norms
rules defining appropriate and inappropriate behavior
william graham sumner
stated that anything can be considered appropriate when norms approve of it
folkways
norms that lack moral significance
mores
norms that have moral dimensions and that should be followed by members of the society
taboos
a rule of behavior, the violation of which calls for strong punishment (rape, incest, bestiality)
law
a norm that is formally defined and enforced by officials
sanctions
rewards and punishments used to encourage people to follow norms
formal sanctions
sanctions imposed by persons given special authority
informal sanctionsim
rewards or punishments that can be applied by most members of a group
values
broad ideas about what is good or desirable shared by people in a society
robin williams
sociologist who identified important US values
what US values did robin Williams identify
-achievement and success
-activity and work
-efficiency and practicality
-equality
-democracy
-group superiority
nonmaterial culture
ideas, knowledge, and beliefs that influence people's behavior
how are the first terms related
Sanctions enforce Folkways, Mores, and Laws which are types of Norms that are based on Values
beliefs
ideas about the nature of reality
material culture
the concrete, tangible, objects of a culture (phone, pictures, money)
how is material culture related to nonmaterial culture
for example, Jewish people wearing yamakahs to church. they coincide
ideal culture
utopia. cultural guidelines that group members claim to accept
real culture
actual behavior of members of a group
examples of ideal vs real culture
President Clinton or athletes that use steroids
cultural diversity and similarity
they go hand in hand; all depends on location