22 terms

Meiosis

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sexual reproduction
reproduction that results from combining genetic material from two individuals.
meiosis
type of cell division that results in 4 daughter cells that each have half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell.
homologous pairs
A pair of chromosomes of the same type, one from each parent.
Diploid
A cell containing two full sets of chromosomes (one from father and one from mother). In humans, the diploid number is 46.
Haploid
A cell containing a single set of chromosomes (one of each kind - half)
Gametes
A haploid male or female germ cell (e.g. sperm and egg)
Sperm
Male germ cell in animals. It is haploid and has a tail.
Egg
Female germ cell in animals.
2n
Symbol for diploid number of chromosomes in a cell.
1n
Symbol for haploid number of chromosomes in a cell.
gene
a section of the DNA (chromosome) that codes for a specific trait (e.g. eye color or hair color)
crossing over
when homologous chromosomes exchange genes during Prophase 1 creating new mixture of parent traits in their offspring
Meiosis I
PMAT I: The first cell division of meiosis when the homologous pairs are split up into two separate cells.
Meiosis II
PMAT II: The second cell division of meiosis. This is when the sister chromatids are split up into two separate cells.
zygote
the result of a sperm and an egg
Meiosis II
No DNA replication during this division
Meiosis I
There IS DNA replication during this division
Cytokinesis
The last phase after Telophase.
Mitosis
Produces cells almost genetically identical
Meiosis
Produces cells that are different genetically
Asexual reproduction
Has the advantage of producing offspring in greater numbers, with no partner required
46 pairs of chromosomes
How many pairs of chromosomes present in humans