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Topic 3: Emissions from Power Production and Transportation
Terms in this set (85)
Over the past 25 years, per capita energy consumption, has increased more rapidly in the developed world (OCED countries) than in the developing world (non-OCED countries). (True or False)
The country with the highest total energy consumption is China. (True or False)
The fossil fuel used most within the US.
The fossil fuel with the greatest overall availability (accessible reserves).
3.4 x 10⁻³
A particular city consumes electrical power at an average rate of 115 MW for one year. What is its total energy consumption expressed in quads?
7.5 x 10⁻²
Covert 7.1 x 10¹³ BTUs to EJ.
7.34 x 10⁶
How may BTUs are there in 7.74 x 10⁹ J
1.97 x 10⁻⁴
How many EJ of energy would be provided by a 99.1 MW power plant operating continuously for 23 days?
GDP (Gross Domestic Product) is most closely associated with natural gas consumption. (True or False)
5.2 x 10⁻₃
A particular city consumes electrical power at an average rate of 175 MW for one year. What is its total energy consumption expressed in quads?
2.56 x 10
Convert 2.7 x 10²⁰ J to quads.
How many BTUs are there in 6.43 x 10⁴ J?
The organic portion of coal typically contains heteroatoms such as S, N, and O. (True or False)
The inorganic portions of coal contribute to the majority of nitrogen in coal. (True or False)
Anthracite coals is most commonly used for electrical power generation. (True or False)
Coals is normally significantly less than 100% carbon. (True or False)
Given that for the gas-phase equilibrium 1/2 N₂ + 1/2 O₂ = NO, change in H = 90.3 kJ and change in S = 21.6 J/K, calculate change in G at T = 1090 °C.
N₂ + O₂ → 2NO (endo)
The equilibrium shifts to make NO less favorable (more unfavorable) as the temperature is decreased. (True or False)
The presence of excess O₂ makes the formation of NO less favorable. (True or False)
The reaction forming NO proceeds rapidly at normal temperature but only slowly at high temperatures. (True or False)
NO formed at high temperatures spontaneously, does not split back up into N₂ and O₂ once the temperature is lowered. (True or False)
separation process used to separate petroleum into different "cuts", such as fuel oils and gasoline.
Heating petroleum with H₂ and then scrubbing the product with a base solution to remove a specific type of contaminant.
Heating petroleum products in the presence of catalysts to produce more desirable isomers.
Heating crude petroleum to high temperatures with H₂ or H₂O to break large molecules into smaller ones.
Colorless, odorless, highly toxic gas produced when fossil fuels are burned without sufficient oxygen.
The main form of sulfur emission when dirty fuels are burned in the presence of excess air.
volatile organic compound
What does VOC stand for?
The main form of nitrogen pollution formed during the combustion process.
Process in H₂S is removed from natural gas by scrubbing the natural gas with a solution of amine.
In hydraulic fracturing, the agent such as sand used to keep fractures form closing up again once pressure is decreased.
Prefix for 10⁶
Prefix for 10⁹
Prefix for 10¹²
Prefix for 10¹⁵
Prefix for 10¹⁸
Prefix for 10²¹
Bituminous (and sub-bituminous) coal is most commonly used for electrical power. (True or False)
Different coals produce significantly different amounts of heat per kilogram. (True or False)
Process in which H₂S in natural gas is partially oxidized and is ultimately converted to elemental sulfur.
Fossil Fuel Power Plants: In conventional coal-fueld power plants, coal is converted to syn gas (H₂ + CO) prior to combustion. (True or False)
Utilizing low-SO₂ burners that decrease the efficiency of SO₂ formation is commonly used at conventional power plants to reduce sulfur emissions. (True or False)
Fossil Fuel Power Plants: Waste heat can be used to prewarm combustion air to make the process more efficient. (True or False)
Fossil Fuel Power Plants: A "combine cycle" generator refers to one which has a series of steam turbines of different design to more efficiently utilize steam entering the turbine. (True or False)
Fossil Fuel Power Plants: Gas turbines require input of gaseous fuel (not steam). (True or False)
In power plants, the nitrogen reaction product in the process is N₂ gas. (True or False)
In power plants, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) normally achieves NOx reductions greater than 75%. (True or False)
In power plants, only ammonia is used for selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) while only urea is used for selective catalytic reduction (SCR).
In power plants catalytic reduction (SCR) is normally carried out at temperatures higher than used for selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR).
Cyclone type scrubbers (sm. diameter) should significantly reduce particles in the 1 um range. (True or False)
Bag houses are good for removal of large particulates, but not for finer ones. (True or False)
Wet scrubbers efficiency increases in the order: (poorest) simple< impingement< venturi (best). (True or False)
Electrostatic precipitators have excellent collection inefficiencies, but only for ionic compounds. (True or False)
A coal fired power plant burns 230 metric tones of coal that is 0.93% S by mass. How many metric tons of CaSO₄ could be produced in a limestone scrubber system if all of the sulfur emissions are captured. (Assume that all the sulfur from the coal is initially converted to SO₂ which reacts with limestone and oxygen to form calcium sulfate).
Calculate the theoretical Carnot efficiency of a powerplant for which the temperature of the inlet steam is 700 °C and that of the outlet step 320°C.
In ICCG systems, the actual fuel that is burned to produce heat is CH₄. (True or False)
Calculate the theoretical Carnot efficiency of a powerplant for which the temperature of the inlet steam is 525 °C and that of the outlet step is 225 °C.
Catalytic converters normally employ precious metals, such as, Pt, Rh, and Pd. (True or False)
A coal fired power plant burns 50 mt of coal that s 1.41% S by mass. How many metric tons of CaCO₃ could be required to capture all of the sulfur emissions (assume that all of the sulfur from the coal is initially converted to SO₂ and that all of the added limestone reacts).
Catalytic converters do not function efficiently until they have heated up. (True or False)
The decomposition of NO to N₂ and O₂ is thermodynamically favorable at both low and high temperatures. (True or False)
Catalytic converters function by shifting the position of the equilibrium (the K value) to make unfavorable reactions thermodynamically favorable (True or False)
Diesel Engines: exhaust gas re-circulation is used as a method to limit CO emissions. (True or False)
Diesel Engines: Catalytic converters for diesels are similar to those used of gasoline engines, are designed to decrease emissions of CO, NOx, and VOCs.
Diesel Engines: One method of controlling particulate matter is to utilize a regenerative trap where carbon particles may be oxidized. (True or False)
Diesel Engines: Selective catalytic reduction units are designed primarily to lower NOx emissions. (True or False)
What chemical substance was normally added to gasoline to make it leaded?
Setting up an engine so that the spark is advanced relative to top dead center (TDC) tends to improve power and fuel efficiency. (True or False)
A lean mixture is one that has excess fuel relative to the amount needed for a stoichiometric mixture. (True or False)
Octane is a rating scale that indicates how easily a fuel is ignited and a higher octane rating implies greater ease of ignition. (True or False)
Engine conditions that favor CO emissions also tend to favor emissions. (True or False)
some of the incomplete combustion of gasoline occurs on the cool sides of the cylinders. This is called _____>
Gasoline fumes escaping from the fuel system (not entering the engine per se) are referred to as _______.
Fuel fumes leak past the piston seal into the crankcase via a process called _____.
positive crankcase ventilation valve
Fuel fumes in the crankcase are drawn out via the _____ and directed back into the air-fuel mixture.
What is the term that is used to rate diesel?
Gasoline is evaluated by its ______.
What type of fuel gets a higher rating if it is easier to ignite?
What type of fuel is better if it has primarily branched hydrocarbons?
Two-way converters are designed o decease emissions of both CO and VOCs. (True or False)
Selective catalytic reduction units are designed primarily to lower SO₂ emissions. (True or False)
Exhaust as re-circulation is used as a method to limit NOx production. (True or False)
One method of controlling particulate matter is to utilize a regenerative trap where carbon particulates may be oxidize.
A rich mixture is one that has excess fuel relative to the amount needed for a stoichiometric mixtue. (True or False)
Pre-ignition of the gasoline-air mixture.
What causes pinging and knocking?
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