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TEAS 6 ANATOMY/PHYSIOLOGY
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Terms in this set (140)
Which organs do the circulatory and respiratory system share?
Lungs, heart, blood vessels
What are the 11 systems of the body?
Sagittal or median
The cytoskeleton consists of what three types of molecules/what are their functions?
microtubules, microfilaments, intermediate filaments
functions: shape, support, movement
Receiving, modifying, and transporting proteins for secretions from the cell
Lacks ribosomes for protein synthesis.
3 main functions:
storage of calcium ions
detoxification of toxins
An outside, rigid layer that helps separate the inside and outside of the cell
Protein rich gel fluid that houses organelles
Bacteria are what type of cell?
The condensed DNA of the cell. contains genes and the genetic blueprints for the formation of proteins that make up the machinery of the cell
Small, circular portions of DNA (not chromosomal DNA) contain small number of genes
Produces PROTEIN from RNA
Have eukaryotic cells which are more complex and much larger than prokaryotic cells
Transport channel within the cell for proteins from one part of the cell to another and in and out of the cell
What are the three types of VESICLES and their functions?
Peroxisomes: Rid the body of TOXIC components, such as hydrogen peroxide. Major cite of oxygen use and energy production
Lysosomes: contains digestive enzymes that are capable of disposing of cellular debris and worn cellular parts
What organ contains peroxisomes?
Move vesicles, granules, organelles like mitochondria, and chromosomes via special attachment proteins. During mitosis, form the mitotic spindle
Produce ribosomes that get moved to the cytoplasm to make cell proteins
What organelles occur ONLY in ANIMAL cells and are involved in cell division where they produce SPINDLES?
Centrioles and centrosomes
What occurs only in plant cells?
Cell plate and chloroplasts
What organelle is NOT involved in protein synthesis?
How many lobes does the right lung have?
How many lobes does the left lung have?
Which lung is larger?
Oxygen exchange in the lungs occurs through what?
Describe rate of diffusion in the lungs
Rate of diffusion is directly proportional to surface area and concentration gradient. Inversely proportional to the distance between two solutions. Oxygen in the lungs moves into the blood and carbon dioxide in the blood moves into the lungs to be exhaled
Describe the process of inspiration
Diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract to increase volume and decrease pressure in the lungs
Describe the process of expiration
Diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract to decrease volume and increase pressure in the lungs
Amount of air breathed in and out of the lungs
Air trapped in alveoli after expiration
Breathing control centers are located where in the brain?
Medulla oblongata of the brainstem
(Works by monitoring CARBON DIOXIDE levels and blood pH)
Genetic disorder that affects the lungs and other organs, difficulty breathing, coughing up sputum, lung infections
Passage of fluid to an organ or a tissue
What secretes surfactant and what is it's function?
Alveoli, reduces friction in the lungs
What is not sensed by the medulla oblongata?
At the end of a sprint are carbon dioxide levels high or low? Is pH increased or decrease? Is blood acidity increased or decreased?
Carbon dioxide is high, pH is decreased, acidity is increased
What happens when the residual volume of the lung is reduced?
Causes higher inspiratory volume and an oxygen gradient
Walking pneumonia is caused by
Influenza is caused by
Function of Circulatory (cardiovascular) system
Movement of blood and lymph around the body, which permits nutrient distribution, transport chemical messengers and immune molecules, waste removal, communication and protection.
Closed circulatory system
double loop system, think walled arteries that transport blood away from the heart. Thinner walled arteries that transport blood to the heart. capillaries made of single layered epithelium (connect arteries to veins in tissue)
Open lymphatic system
Circulates and filters interstitial fluid between cells and drains into the circulatory system
Deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs and returns oxygenated blood to the left atrium
Oxygenated blood from the left ventricle to the body returning deoxygenated blood to the right atrium
Tricuspid and Mitral close while pulmonary and aortic open
Pulmonary and aortic close
Tricuspid and Mitral open
Small and round type of white blood cell. B cells (make antibodies) and T cells (cell mediated immunity)
PLASMA with the red blood cells removed
Component of blood that carries red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets throughout the body
Excretory functions are preformed by what?
Kidney nephrons, skin sweat glands, and lung alveoli
What increases after a vaccination?
Where is the SA "pacemaker" located?
Top part of the right atrium
What is the most abundant white blood cell?
Excessive localized ENLARGEMENT of an artery caused by a weakening of the artery wall. Can rupture and cause stroke
What is the function of the pulmonary vein?
Carries oxygenated blood from the lungs TOWARD the heart
Rest and Digest
Release digestive enzymes
Heart rate drops
Urinary output increases
Fight or Flight
Heart rate increases
Slows down digestion
more glycogen to glucose
What is the first part of the small intestine?
What are the three main secretions of the stomach?
Pepsinogen (chief cells)
Mucus (goblet cells)
Hydrochloric acid (parietal cells)
Basophils, eosinophils, neutrophils
"Ben is Grand"
Lymphocytes and monocytes
No visible grains
Leukocytes are made where and by what?
Red bone marrow by hematopoietic stem cells
What is the largest type of white blood cell?
What is the least frequent type of white blood cell?
High white blood cell count
Accessory digestive organs
Teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, pancreas
What are the secretions of the stomach?
- Gastric juices (contains HCL to kill bacteria and denature protein)
- Pepsin (begins digestion of proteins)
- Intrinsic factor (absorption of vitamin B12)
- Gastric lipase (digestion of triglycerides)
Layers of stomach (deep to surface)
What is the function of the enzyme gastric lipase in the stomach?
Splits triglycerides in fat molecules into fatty acids and monoglycerides
What is absorbed by the stomach?
Small amount of nutrients because epithelial cells are impermeable to most material. some water, short-chain fatty acids, certain drugs like aspirin and alcohol
To produce DIGESTIVE JUICES that are released into the small intestine. produces insulin
To filter toxins from blood and make bile. Converts ammonia to urea
Small intestine function
Where the most nutrients is absorbed
Large intestine function
What prevents reflux of food back into the esophagus?
Where is vitamin K absorbed?
What are the 3 parts of the small intestine?
Duodenum, jejunum, ileum
What hormone induces hunger?
What hormone induces satiety?
Secretions of the pancreas
Pancreatic juice (bicarbonate, lipase, trypsinogen) proteases, and amylase. Secretin, somatostatin, insulin, glucagon
Secretions of the small intestine
Proteases, lactase, disaccharides, cholecystokinin, somatostatin, secretin, motilin
What converts ammonia to urea?
What produces the majority of digestive enzymes?
Stomach and intestines
The digestive system is controlled by what nervous system?
Sphincters of the alimentary canal
- Upper and lower esophageal sphincters: connects esophagus to stomach
- Pyloric sphincter: connects stomach to duodenum
- Ileocecal valve: connects small and large intestine
- Internal and external anal sphincters rectum and anus
Zymogen form of protease produced in the stomach
Cells that produce acid in the stomach
Valve through which chyme passes from stomach to duodenum
Hormone produced by stomach that induces stomach secretions
Hormone that induces bile and pancreatic juice secretion
Second section of small intestine where MAJORITY of absorption occurs
Blood vessel that carries nutrients directly from SMALL INTESTINE to LIVER
Hepatic portal vein
Somatic (voluntary) nervous system controls what?
Move skeletal muscles
What process describes how a signal travels across a nerve synapse?
What is the primary component of muscles?
What is fat responsible for?
Storing energy and protecting nerve cells
Small masses of nervous tissue consisting primarily of neuron cell bodies that are located outside of the brain and spinal cord
Networks of neurons located in the walls of organs of the GI tract. Neurons of these plexuses help regulate the digestive system
Specialized nerve cell that is designed to respond to a specific sensory stimulus
What are the 3 types of sensory receptors?
1. Exteroceptors 2.Interoceptors 3.Proprioceptors
What are exteroceptors?
Receive sensory information from outside of the body. Examples: Visual, auditory, tactile, gustatory, and olfactory
What are Interoceptors?
Receive sensory information from inside the body. Detect internal body sensation. Examples: from the viscera (hollow organs), stomach pain, pinched spinal nerves, and deep skin inflammation
What are proprioceptors?
UNCONSCIOUS information received. Detect BODY POSITION in space and movement. Located in the muscles, tendons, and joints inside the body and semicircular canals of the inner ear
Respond to pressure and pain from the internal organs
Enteric nervous system. Governs contractions of GI tract smooth muscle to propel food through the GI tract
3 Functions of the nervous system
- Sensory (detect internal or external stimuli)
- Integrative (process sensory information, integration)
- Motor (Elicit an appropriate motor response by activating effectors (muscles and glands) through cranial and spinal nerves
What is an effector?
Muscles or glands
Multipolar Neurons/where they are found
Several dendrites and one axon. most neurons in the brain and spinal cord are this type as well as all motor neurons
Bipolar neurons/where they are found
One main dendrite and one axon. Retina of the eye, inner ear, olfactory area
Unipolar neurons (pseudounipolar neurons)
Dendrites and one axon that are fused together to form a continuous process that emerges from the cell body. Begin in embryo as bipolar neurons. Most function as SENSORY receptors. Cell bodies of most unipolar neurons are located in the ganglia of spinal and cranial nerves
Make up half the volume of the CNS. Holds nervous tissue together
Neuroglia of the CNS
Astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia, ependymal cells
Neuroglia in the PNS
Schwann cells and satellite cells
Long bundles of axons that transmit signals from the central nervous system
The rate of chemical reaction doesn't depend on?
Amount of mass lost
What is the longest phase of the cell cycle?
If a cell is placed in a hypertonic solution, what will happen to the cell?
It will shrink
Substance that is dissolved
What the substance is dissolved in
Which antibody-secreting cell is triggered to proliferate upon vaccination?
What produces ammonia by deamination in the liver?
What lymphatic capillaries absorb fats?
Connects the bladder to the exterior of the female body
The duct in which sperm moves from a testicle to the urethra
Where does the fertilized egg embed itself?
Endometrium of the uterine wall
Where is estrogen produced?
What causes a developing egg to be released?
LH from the pituitary
Where is progesterone produced?
What connects the ovaries to the uterus?
What is the role of the prostate?
Creating fluid to transfer sperm
Stimulates the anterior pituitary to release FSH and LH
Located in seminiferous tubules and nourish developing sperm cells
Made up of seminiferous tubules which are the site of sperm production
Contract to move sperm
A primary spermatocyte gives rise to how many sperm?
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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