88 terms

Personality Development Midterm

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Freud's 5 Psychosexual Stages
1. Oral (birth-1 yr)
2. Anal (1-3 yrs)
3. Phallic (3-5/6 yrs)
4. Latency (6 yrs-puberty)
5. Genital (puberty-adulthood)
Erikson's 8 Psychosocial Stages
1. Trust vs. Mistrust (birth-1 yr)
2. Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt (1-3 yrs)
3. Initiative vs. Guilt (3-5/6 yrs)
4. Industry vs. Inferiority (6-12 yrs)
5. Identity vs. Role Confusion (12-20 yrs)
6. Intimacy vs. Isolation (young adulthood)
7. Generativity vs. Stagnation (middle adulthood)
8. Ego Integrity vs. Despair (late adulthood)
Trust vs. Mistrust stage
Erikson, birth to 1 yr
Sensitive caregiving leads to trust
Develop hope OR fear and mistrust
Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt stage
Erikson, 1 to 3 yrs
Sense of independence tied to mental and motor skills
Develop willpower OR self-doubt
Initiative vs. Guilt stage
Erikson 3 to 5-6 yrs
Experiment with grown-up roles
Develop purpose OR guilt over thought and actions
Industry vs. Inferiority stage
Erikson, 6 to 12 yrs
Academic skills, compare favorably with peers
Develop competence OR lack of competence
Identity vs. Role Confusion stage
Erikson, 12 to 20 yrs
Make choices about values
Develop fidelity OR inability to establish sense of self
Intimacy vs. Isolation stage
Erikson, young adulthood
Share identity and commit to partnerships
Develop love OR fear of intimacy/distancing
Generativity vs. Stagnation stage
Erikson, middle adulthood
Contribute to next generation
Develop care OR self-absorption
Ego Integrity vs. Despair stage
Erikson, late adulthood
Come to terms with life's successes, failures, missed opportunities
Develop wisdom OR regret
Piaget's 4 Stages of Cognitive Development
1. Sensorimotor (birth-2 yrs)
2. Preoperational thought (2-6/7 yrs)
3. Concrete operational thought (7-11/12 yrs)
4. Formal operational thought (12 yrs-adulthood)
Sensorimotor stage
Piaget, birth to 2 yrs
At first, reflexive behavior, automatically triggered. By end of this stage, behavior is guided by representational thought
Preoperational Thought stage
Piaget, 2 to 6-7 yrs
Early representational thought, thought is focused on one salient piece of info or aspect of event, thinking is not yet logical
Concrete Operational Thought stage
Piaget, 7 to 11-12 yrs
Thinking more rapid and efficient, children decenter, discover logical relationships between and among pieces of info, concrete thinking
Formal Operational Thought stage
Piaget, 12 yrs to adulthood
Logical thinking extends now to formal or abstract material - hypothetical situations
Behaviorist Tradition people
Watson, Bandura, Skinner
Systems of Bronfenbrenner's Bioecological Model
Microsystem
Mesosystem
Exosystem
Macrosystem
Microsystem
Bronfenbrenner
Immediate environment, home, school, peers
Mesosystem
Bronfenbrenner
Interactions among components of the microsystem
Exosystem
Bronfenbrenner
Extended family, community, society
Macrosystem
Bronfenbrenner
Broader culture, ideology, attitudes
Neuroplasticity
Changes in brain that occur as result of some practice or experience, neurons get reorganized
Critical Periods
Periods of time where changes occur more easily or effectively
Universality
Some things are common across all cultures
Specificity
Sociocultural theories argue that development is different in different cultures, different schemes and important things to learn and develop
Factors Influencing Development
-Protective factors
-Risk factors
-Mediating factors
-Moderating variables
Epigenesis
Process by which outside factors influence how hereditary material functions
Coaction
Reciprocal influence of hereditary and environmental factors
Homeostasis
Automatic physiological responses that occur to balance internal systems
Cortisol
"stress hormone" - elevated in highly stressed individuals
Assimilation
Fitting new information to existing knowledge
Accommodation
Change knowledge structures to fit what is new
Adaptation
Combination of assimilation and accommodation
3 Parts of Sensorimotor Stage (Infant Cognition)
-Understanding objects
-Remembering
-Having and inferring intentions
3 Parts of Preoperational Stage (Preschoolers' Cognition)
-Understanding numbers
-Understanding the mind, perspective taking
-Understanding symbolic artifacts
Issues of emotional development in early childhood (5)
1. Attachment style and type of care influence relationships
2. Anxiety in social situations
3. Inadequate emotional regulation leads to poor emotional responses
4. Quality of care influences how children develop
5. Child's temperament may influence attachment
Aspects of temperament
-Fearfulness or reactivity
-Irritability or negative emotionality
-Activity level
-Positive affect
-Attention-persistence
-Rhythmicity
Functions of emotions
-Emotions have survival value
-Emotions are powerful motivators of behavior
-Emotional expressions help us to communicate
-Emotions enhance cognitive functioning
Erikson attachment theory
Consistent, sensitive care helps infants establish basic trust and feelings of worthiness
Bowlby attachment theory
A system of innate behaviors bond the infant to a primary caregiver for proximity maintenance, providing a secure base and safe haven
Ainsworth's attachment qualities (4)
-Secure Attached
-Anxious-Ambivalent Insecure Attachment
-Avoidant-Ambivalent Insecure Attachment
-Disorganized-Disoriented Insecurely Attached
Secure Attached
Ainsworth
Distressed when caregiver leaves, happy when they return
Consistent, sensitive care
Anxious-Ambivalent Insecure Attachment
Ainsworth
Sad when parent leaves, mad when they return
Insensitive care
Avoidant-Ambivalent Insecure Attachment
Ainsworth
Fail to cry, not attached at all
Insensitive care
Disorganized-Disoriented Insecurely Attached
Ainsworth
Hard to predict
Abusive or neglectful care
Self-Control
Stop yourself from doing something forbidden
Self-Regulation
Make yourself do things you don't feel like doing
William James
Distinguished self-as-subject ("I") and self-as-object ("Me")
"I"
Active agent, part that experiences a sense of subjective self-awareness
"Me"
-Object of self or others' observations
-Material self
-Social self
-Spiritual self
James Cooley
Cooley's Looking Glass Self
George Herbert Mead
Culture
Looking Glass Self
Self development originates from observing the reflected appraisals of others
2 Major Dimensions of Parenting Style
-Warmth
-Control
4 Parenting Styles
-Authoritative
-Authoritarian
-Permissive
-Neglecting-Uninvolved
What is Authoritative? What are the outcomes?
High warmth, high demandingness
Outcome: better adaptability, social relations, competence, self-esteem
What is Authoritarian? What are the outcomes?
Low warmth, high demandingness
Outcome: greater irritability, anxiety, anger
What is Permissive? What are the outcomes?
High/moderate warmth, low demandingness
Outcome: more controlled, impulsive behavior, low levels of self-reliance
What is Neglecting-Uninvolved? What are the outcomes?
Low warmth, low demandingness
Outcome: more impulsiveness, aggression, depression, low self-esteem
3 Parenting Practices
-Power assertion
-Love withdrawal
-Induction
Power assertion
Parenting practice
Physical punishments or threats, withdrawal of privileges
Love withdrawal
Parenting practice
Withdrawing attention or affection, expressing disappointment
Induction
Parenting practice
Use of explanation, appealing to child's desire to be grown-up
Most effective
Crittendon's Theoretical Framework on Attachment
-Securely attached
-Insecure-avoidant
-Insecure-anxious
Securely attached
Crittendon
Infants reinforced for expressing positive and negative feelings
Insecure-avoidant
Crittendon
Infants learn that displays of distress elicit rejection, punishment, or withdrawal
Insecure-anxious
Crittendon
Infants learn that displays of distress elicit unpredictable results
5 Steps of Positive Parenting Program
1. Create a safe, interesting environment
2. Have a positive learning environment
3. Use assertive discipline
4. Have realistic expectations
5. Take care of yourself as a parent
3 Parts of Concrete Operational stage (Middle childhood cognition)
-Egocentrism
-Reversibility
-Logical Reasoning
Theory of Mind
Understanding other people's thoughts, feelings, desires (middle childhood)
Selman's Stages of Friendship Development (5)
Stage 0: Undifferentiated/Egocentric (3-6 yrs)
Stage 1: Differentiated/Subjective (5-9 yrs)
Stage 2: Reciprocal/Self-Reflective (8-12 yrs)
Stage 3: Mutual/Third-Person (10-15 yrs)
Stage 4: Intimate/In-Depth/Societal (Late Teen +)
Undifferentiated/Egocentric stage
Selman, 3 to 6 yrs
Little appreciation for thoughts/feelings of themselves or others
Differentiated/Subjective stage
Selman, 5 to 9 yrs
Come to understand others have viewpoints different from their own, but can't decenter
Reciprocal/Self-Reflective stage
Selman, 8 to 12 yrs
Cognizant of perspectives of others, learn to put self in another's place
Mutual/Third-Person stage
Selman, 10 to 15 yrs
Learn to view each other's perspective in back and forth approach - egocentrism reduced, mutual support and shared intimacy, mutual compromise
Intimate/In-Depth/Societal stage
Selman, Late teens +
Learn to adapt perspective of larger society, perspective taking becomes abstract/complex
Interacting factors in Friendship Framework
-Child temperament
-Family environment
-Physical context
-Internal processes
Elements of morality
-Capacity to make judgments of right vs. wrong
-Preferring to act in ways judged to be right
Piaget's 3 Stages in Moral Reasoning
-Premoral
-Heteronomous (around 5)
-Autonomous (middle childhood)
Premoral stage
Piaget
Seem unconcerned about established rules or standards
Heteronomous stage
Piaget, around 5
Regard rules as irrefutable, existing outside the self, requiring strict adherence
Autonomous stage
Piaget, middle childhood
Rules are based on social agreements and can be changed
Kohlberg's 3 Stages in Moral Reasoning
-Preconventional (5-12 yrs)
-Conventional (13-16 yrs)
-Postconventional (adults)
Preconventional stage
Kohlberg, 5 to 12 yrs
What is right is right, avoid punishment
Conventional stage
Kohlberg, 13 to 16 yrs
What is right depends on others' approval or on the need to maintain social order
Postconventional stage
Kohlberg, adults
Right is defined by universal principles or by standards of justice
Prosocial Behavior
To act in ways that are intended to benefit someone else (altruism)
Antisocial Behavior
Behavior distinguished by intent to harm or injure another or disregard for the harm