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is the degree to which a measure of physical or cognitive abilities, or traits, is free from random error.

Correlation Coefficient

a measure of the degree to which two sets of numbers are related.
A perfect positive relationship equals +1.0
A perfect negative relationship equals - 1.0


is the extent to which performance on the measure is associated with performance on the job.

Criterion-Related Validation

is a method of establishing the validity of a personnel selection method by showing a substantial correlation between scores on the selection method and job-performance scores. The types include:

Content Validation

is a test-validation strategy performed by demonstrating that the items, questions, or problems posed by a test are a representative sample of the kinds of situations or problems that occur on the job.


is the degree to which the validity of a selection method established in one context extends to other contexts.


is the degree to which the information provided by selection methods enhances the effectiveness of selecting personnel in organizations

Civil Rights Act of 1991

This act protects individuals from discrimination based on race, color, sex, religion, and national origin.

Age Discrimination in Employment Act

Covers individuals who are over the age of 40.
There is no protection for younger workers.
This act outlaws almost all "mandatory retirement" programs

American with Disabilities Act

Protects individuals with physical or mental disabilities (or with a history of the same).


the selection method must conform to existing laws and legal precedents

Selection Interviews

are defined as a dialogue initiated by one or more persons to gather information and evaluate the qualifications of an applicant for employment.

Situational Interview

confronts applicants on specific issues, questions, or problems that are likely to arise on the job.

Cognitive Ability Test

differentiates individuals based on their mental rather than physical capacities.

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