35 terms

Nutrition--Chapter 5

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SIX BASIC NUTRIENTS
Carbohydrates, Fats, Protein, Vitamins, Minerals, Water
CARBOHYDRATES
the nutrient which is our primary energy source; where the highest number of calories per day should come
SIMPLE CARBOHYDRATES
fructose (fruit), lactose (milk), sucrose (sugar)
COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATES
starches found in whole grains, seeds, nuts, legumes
GLYCOGEN
when more energy is needed, glycogen which is stored in the liver and muscles, is converted back to glucose (sugar)
FATS
should make up 30% of a person's diet; adds flavor and texture to food; helps satisfy hunger but is high in calories
SATURATED FATS
solid at room temperature; found in animal products
UNSATURATED FATS
liquid at room temperature; found in vegetable sources; healthier choice
PROTEIN
should make up 10% of a person's diet; makes enzymes, hormones and antibodies
NINE ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS
your body can't manufacture nine of the 20 different amino acids, so you must get them from the foods you eat
COMPLETE PROTEINS
contains adequate amounts of all nine essential amino acids from animal products (fish, meat, poultry, eggs, milk, cheese & yogurt, soybean products)
INCOMPLETE PROTEINS
lacks one or more of the essential amino acids (beans, peas, nuts and whole grains)
FAT-SOLUBLE VITAMINS
A, D, E, K (excess build-up can be toxic)
WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINS
B, C (body doesn't store these)
GOOD NUTRITION
enhances your quality of life and helps prevent diseases
MINERALS
substances that the body cannot manufacture but that are needed for regulating many vital processes (ie: calcium=bones)
WATER
most important/abundant nutrient; minimum of eight cups needed per day
PARTIALLY HYDROGENATED FATS
known as trans fats; avoid intake; harmful to arteries
3500 calories
one pound of fat equals
CALCULATIONS CALORIES PER GRAM
carbohydrates/protein=4; fat=9
EMPTY CALORIE FOOD
high in calories; low in nutrients
CHOLESTEROL
waxy, fat-like substance found in saturated fats from animal products
LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS (LDL)
"bad cholesterol"; deposits cholesterol on the lining of the arteries; dietary intake affected
HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS (HDL)
"good cholesterol"; gathers & carries excess cholesterol back to the liver; exercise affected
FIBER
indigestible complex carbohydrates which help move waste through the digestive system; recommended daily amount is 20-35 grams/day; reduces risk of heart disease and may reduce risk of diabetes and colon cancer
OSTEOPOROSIS
a condition in which there is the progressive loss of bone tissue; intake of calcium and Vitamin D is important
HUNGER
a natural physical drive that protects you from starvation
APPETITE
a desire, rather than a need, to eat
FOODBORNE ILLNESS BACTERIA
Campylobacter, Salmonella, E. coli
FOODBORNE ILLNESS VIRUS
Norwalk
PASTEURIZATION
the process of treating a substance with heat to destroy or slow the growth of pathogens
MY PLATE/MY PYRAMID FOOD GROUPS
dairy, fruits, grains, proteins, vegetables
NUTRITION FACTS LABEL COMPONENTS
servings size/servings per container, calories per servings/calories from fat, nutrients, percent daily value, footnote
NUTRITION FACTS LABEL PANEL
law requires that the components information be placed on packages of food that are intended for sale
STEPS TO PREVENT FOODBORNE ILLNESS
clean, separate, cook, chill