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46 terms

Ch 10-11: Terms from 2/23 class

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Muscle fiber
This term is synonymous with muscle cell
Myoblast
These progenitor cells fuse together to form longer muscle (which is why muscle is multinucleate)
Contractility, Elasticity, Excitability, Extensibility
Four functional characteristics of muscle tissue (alphabetical)
Contractility
A characteristic of muscle tissue; ability to generate a pulling force while shortening/contracting
Elasticity
A characteristic of muscle tissue; ability to recoil passively after being stretched
Extensibility
A characteristic of muscle tissue; the ability for one muscle to be stretched by the contraction of an opposing muscle
Excitability
A characteristic of muscle tissue; similar to nervous tissue; electrical impulses travel along cells' plasma membrane, stimulating cells to contract
Cardiac, Skeletal (focus), Smooth
Types of muscle (alphabetical)
Origin
The end of a muscle that doesn't move; attachment of muscle that remains relatively fixed during contraction; generally more medial or proximal end; muscle moves from the insertion towards here
Insertion
The moving end of a muscle; the movable attachment of a muscle; generally more lateral or distal; muscle moves from here towards the origin in as straight a line as possible
Action
What the muscle does; the final part of OIA
Guard orifices, Heat (production), Movement, (maintain) Posture, Support (soft tissues; not sure if this was what she mentioned in class)
Functions of skeletal muscle (also joint stabilization)
Sarko
Prefix meaning "flesh"; a prefix which denotes muscle
Mys
Prefix meaning "mouse" (because muscles look like a mouse running underneath the skin); a prefix which denotes muscle
Epimysium
This is the layer (of dense, irregular CT) which covers the entire skeletal muscle
Perimysium
This is the layer (of fibrous CT) which covers each fascicle or bundle of muscle fibers
Endomysium
This is the layer (of reticular CT) which covers each individual muscle fiber
Fascicle
This term is synonymous with bundle; a group of muscle fibers
Aponeurosis
A flat tendon (i.e. in face or abdomen); flat tendonis sheet attaches to bone, no cords
Sarcolemma
The name of the plasma (cell) membrane of a muscle cell (which is then surrounded by endomysium)
Sarcoplasm
The name of the cytoplasm of a muscle cell
Sarcoplasmic reticulum
The name of specialized smooth ER in a muscle cell which stores calcium ions.
Myofibril
Many of these exist within a muscle fiber; an organelle within a muscle fiber; rodlike bundle of contractile myofilaments, made of repeating segments called sarcomeres
Myofilament
Contained within myofibrils; actin and myosin are examples of this (make up sarcomeres); cause/form striations; special type of microfilament
Actin
A type of protein; the thinner myofilament in sarcomeres; heads of myosin attach to this, use caulking and catching action to shorten sarcomeres
Myosin
A type of protein; the thicker myofilament in sarcomeres; heads of this attach to actin, use caulking and catching action to shorten sarcomeres
Sliding filament theory
The name of the theory which describes the caulking and catching action of myosin and actin to shorten sarcomeres, and therefore contract muscles
Smooth muscle
This muscle type contains sarcomeres, but they don't line up so clear striations are not "visible"
Holds muscle together so it expands and contracts as one
Purpose of "mysiums"
Rectus
Term which means straight (up and down; used for naming muscles)
Oblique
Term which means angle (used for naming muscles)
Transverse
Term which means side to side (used for naming muscles)
Deltoid
This is the name of a muscle but also means "triangle"
Bi, tri, quad
Prefixes for types of muscle origins
Agonist
The prime mover; the prime muscle for movement (contracts)
Antagonist
The muscle(s) that oppose the movement of the agonist
Synergist
A term for muscles which work together (i.e. in quads there are four muscles working together)
Reduction in elasticity, power, size, increase in stiffness (however can keep muscles in shape with exercise)
Aging effects on muscle tissue
Hypertrophy
Enlargement of an organ or tissue due to an increase in the size of its cells
Atrophy
Reduction of size or wasting away of an organ or tissue
Convergent
A pattern of fascicle arrangement where the origin of a muscle is broad and the fascicles ____(nt) toward the tendon of insertion (i.e. pectoralis major)
Pennate
The prefix of this term means "feather"; a pattern of fascicle arrangement where the fascicles are short and attach obliquely to a tendon; the deltoid is multi_____
Tendon
Cord of dense, regular CT that attaches muscle to bone
Diaphragm
This is the broad muscle pierced by the aorta, inferior vena cava, and esophagus; forms floor of thoracic cavity (separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity); in relaxed state is dome-shaped; fibers converge from margins of thoracic cage toward a boomerang-shaped central tendon
Diaphragm
The muscle with these OIA: O - inferior internal surface of rib cage and sternum, costal cartilages of last six ribs, lumbar vertebrae; I - central tendon; A - prime mover of inspiration
Diaphragm
This muscle's action is - prime mover of inspiration; flattens on contraction, increasing vertical dimensions of thorax; when strongly contracted, dramatically increases intra-abdominal pressure