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98 terms

A&PII Chapter 17

STUDY
PLAY
Blood
only fluid tissue in the body
specialized type of connective tissue
specialized type of connective tissue
contains
formed elements
plasma
plasma
nonliving fluid matrix
lacks
dissolved fibrous strands become visible during blood clotting
plasma lacks
collagen
elastic fibers dissolved fibrous strands become visible during blood clotting
Centrifuge Blood
heavier elements to bottom
less dense to top
buffy coat
heavier elements to bottom
most are "erythrocytes"
Centrifuge Blood
heavier elements to bottom
most are "erythrocytes"
red blood cells
red blood cells
transport oxygen
Centrifuge Blood
less dense to top
plasma
Centrifuge Blood
buffy coat
thin
whitish
separates erythrocytes from plasma
contains "leukocytes"
contains "platelets"
buffy coat
contains "leukocytes"
protect the body
buffy coat
contains "platelets"
cell fragments that help stop bleeding
Percentage of Blood Volume
hematocrit
leukocytes and platelets
plasma
hematocrit
percentage occupied by red blood cells
hematocrit
percentage occupied by red blood cells
healthy males 47% +/- 5%
healthy females 42% +/- 5%
Percentage of Blood Volume
leukocytes and platelets
<1%
Percentage of Blood Volume
plasma
~55%
Blood Functions
Purpose
distributing substances
regulating blood
Blood Functions
Distribution
deliver oxygen from lungs
deliver nutrients from digestive tract
to all body cells
Transporting metabolic waste products from cells to elimination sites
Transporting hormones
Distribution
Transporting metabolic waste products from cells to elimination sites
lungs
kidneys
Transporting metabolic waste products from cells to elimination sites
lungs
carbon dioxide
Transporting metabolic waste products from cells to elimination sites
kidneys
nitrogenous wastes in urine
Blood Functions
Distribution
Transporting hormones
from....to
from....to endocrine organs..their target organs
Blood Functions
Regulatory
Maintaining Body Temp
Maintaining normal pH
Maintaining Adequate Fluid Volume
Regulatory
Maintaining Body Temp mechanism
mechanism
distributing heat
throughout
Maintaining Body Temp
mechanism
body
skin surface
to encourage heat loss
Regulatory
Maintaining normal pH
buffers
reservoir for body's "alkaline reserve"
Maintaining normal pH
buffers
blood proteins
bloodborne solutes
prevent
Maintaining normal pH
buffers
prevent
excesive or abrubt changes in blood pH
Maintaining normal pH
buffers
prevent excesive or abrubt changes in blood pH
jeopardize normal cell activities
Regulatory
Maintaining normal pH
reservoir for body's "alkaline reserve"
bicarbonate atoms
Maintaining Adequate Fluid Volume
maintenance to support efficient blood circulation thru body
salts and blood proteins act to prevent excessive fluid loss
salts and blood proteins act to prevent excessive fluid loss
NaCL and others
Protection
Preventing Blood Loss
Preventing Infection
Protection Preventing Blood Loss
platelets and plasma proteins initiate clot formation
clot formation halts blood loss
Preventing Infection
defenders in the blood
Protection
Preventing Infection
defenders in the blood
antibodies
complement proteins
white blood cells
Composition of Plasma
Water
Solutes
Composition of Plasma Water
90% of plasma volume
dissolving and suspending medium for solutes
absorbs heat
Composition of Plasma
Solutes
Plasma Proteins
Specific Plasma Proteins
Nonprotein nitrogenous substances
Composition of Plasma
Solutes
Plasma Proteins
8% by weight of plasma volume
all contribute to osmotic pressure
maintain water balance in blood and tissues
all have other functions
Plasma Proteins
all have other functions
transport
enzymatic
etc
Specific Plasma Proteins
Albumin
Globulins
Specific Plasma Proteins
Albumin
60% of plasma proteins
produced by liver
main contributor to osmotic pressure (sodium ions are the other contributor to osmotic pressure)
carrier to shuttle molecules
Specific Plasma Proteins
Globulins
36% of plasma proteins
alpha, beta
gamma
fibrinogen
Globulins
alpha, beta
produced by liver
most are transport proteins
that bind to
alpha, beta
that bind to
lipids
metal ions
fat-soluble vitamins
Globulins
gamma
antibodies released by plasma cells during immune response
Globulins
fibrinogen
4% of plasma proteins
produced by liver
forms fibrin threads of blood clot
List the formed element classes of blood
erythrocytes
leukocytes
platelets
Formed Elements
Overview of Gen char.
erythrocytes
platelets are cell fragments
leukocytes are complete cells
most formed elements only last a few days
continuously renewed by bone marrow
Overview of Gen char. erythrocytes
have no
vastly outnumber the other cell types
erythrocytes have no
nuclei
organelles
Formed Elements
Overview of Gen char.
continuously renewed by bone marrow
through cell division
Erythrocytes Structural char
erythrocytes means
small, about 7nanometers diameter
shape
appear lighter at center than edges
bound by plasma membrane
lack
contain
Erythrocytes
Structural char
erythrocytes means
red blood cell
Erythrocytes
Structural char
shape
concave discs
w/ depressed centers
Erythrocytes
Structural char
lack
nucleus
organelles
Erythrocytes
Structural char contain
hemoglobin
other proteins
Erythrocytes
Structural char contain hemoglobin
RBC protein that functions in gas transport
Erythrocytes
Structural char contain other proteins
antioxidant enzymes
most function to
Erythrocytes
Structural char contain other proteins antioxidant enzymes
rid the body of harmful oxygen radicals
Erythrocytes
Structural char contain other proteins most function to
maintain the plasma membrane
promote changes in RBC shape
example
Erythrocytes
Structural char contain other proteins most function to example
spectrin
spectrin
one of the proteins that maintains biconcave shape of erythrocyte
attached to cytoplasmic face of its plasma membrane
spectrin net is deformable
spectrin
spectrin net is deformable
gives erythrocytes ability to change shape as needed
and resume shape
Erythrocytes Structural Characteristics contributing to gas transport
huge surface area to volume ratio
Erythrocytes Structural Characteristics contributing to gas transport huge surface area to volume ratio
small size
biconcave shape
30% more surface area than spherical cells
no point far from cell surface
Erythrocytes
Structural Characteristics contributing to gas transport
97% hemoglobin (discounting water)
binds and transports respiratory gases
Erythrocytes Structural Characteristics contributing to gas transport
efficient oxygen transporters
mitochondria
generate ATP by anaerobic mechanisms
don't consume oxygen they carry
Erythrocytes Blood Viscocity
women
men
when number of RBC's increases, blood viscosity increases
when number of RBC's decreases, blood viscosity increases
Erythrocytes Blood Viscocity
women
lower red blood cell count 4.3 - 5.2 million cells per microliter
Erythrocytes Blood Viscocity men
higher red blood cell count 5.1 - 5.8 million per microliter
Erythrocytes
Blood Viscocity
when number of RBC's increases, blood viscosity increases
blood thickens
flows more slowly
Erythrocytes
Blood Viscocity
when number of RBC's decreases, blood viscosity increases
blood thins
flows more rapidly
Erythrocytes Function
hemoglobin
the protein that binds to oxygen
makes blood cells red
normal values
structure
each hemoglobin carries 4 oxygen atoms
single red blood cell has 250 million hemoglobin
contained in erythrocytes
Erythrocytes Function
hemoglobin
normal values
14-20 g/100mL infants
13-18 g/100mL adult males
12-16 g/100 mL adult females
Erythrocytes
hemoglobin
structure
heme
globin
Erythrocytes
hemoglobin
structure heme
ringlike
bears iron atom
pigment
structure heme
bears iron atom
combines reversible w/ oxygen atom
structure
globin
4
alpha
beta
protein
Erythrocytes
hemoglobin
contained in erythrocytes
prevents
breaking into fragments
contributing to blood viscosity
Mnemonic
Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas order of leukocytes according to abundance
order of leukocytes according to abundance
neutrophils
lymphocytes
monocytes
eosinophils
basophils
Granulocytes include
neutrophils
basophils
eosinophils
Granulocytes
characteristics
roughly spherical
larger than erythrocytes
shorter lived than erythrocytes
lobed nuclei
stain specifically w/ Wright's stain
Granulocytes
Neutrophils
most numerous of WBC
50 - 70 % of WBC
twice as large as Erythrocytes
cytoplasm nuclei
Fight bacteria
Neutrophils
cytoplasm
contains granules
take up both blue (basic) and red (acidic) dyes
the two types of granule
Neutrophils
cytoplasm
contains granules
the two types of granule
lysosomes
other type
Neutrophils
cytoplasm
contains granules
the two types of granule lysosomes
contain hydrolytic enzymes
Neutrophils
cytoplasm
contains granules
the two types of granule other type
contain defensins - potent brew of antimicrobial proteins
Granulocytes
Neutrophils
nuclei
3 to 6 lobes
polymorphonuclear
Granulocytes
Neutrophils
nuclei polymorphonuclear
due to variability
Neutrophils
Fight bacteria
increase explosively during bacteria infections
chemically attracted to sites of inflammation
active phagocytes
bacterial killing by "respiratory burst"
Neutrophils
Fight bacteria
increase explosively during bacteria infections
meningitis
appendicitis
etc
Neutrophils
Fight bacteria bacterial killing by "respiratory burst"
oxygen actively metabolized
produces germ killer substances
defensin mediated lysis occurs
Neutrophils
Fight bacteria bacterial killing by "respiratory burst" produces germ killer substances
bleach
hydrogen peroxide
Neutrophils
Fight bacteria bacterial killing by "respiratory burst" defensin mediated lysis occurs
granules containing defensins
merge with
microbe containing phagosome
defensins form peptide spears
pierce holes in membrane of ingested "foe"