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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
Revolts in Latin Ameica
Terms in this set (11)
member of the highest class in Spain's colonies in the Americas, born in Europe
American-born descendents of Spanish settlers n Spain's colonies in the Americas; many revolutionary leaders came from this class, because they resented their second-class status
People of Native and European ancestry in Spain's colonies in the Americas
People of African and European ancestry in Spain's colonies in the Americas
The most important military leader in the struggle for independence in South America. Born in Venezuela as a creole, he led military forces there and in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia (northern/eastern part of South America). During the French Revolution, he traveled in Europe and was inspired by Enlightenment ideals. Known throughout South America as "The Liberator".
Self-educated former slave, brilliant general and inspiring military leader. Led the first successful slave revolt (influenced by the French Revolution) in 1791 against French plantation owners. By 1798 slavery was abolished on the island. In 1802, he was captured by Napoleon Bonaparte's army, but the conflict influenced the French to sell the Louisiana territory to the U.S. In 1804 the people of Hispaniola declared itself an independent country known as Haiti, and in 1820 Haiti became a republic.
Father Miguel Hidalgo
The first leader of Mexico's fight for independence;
Creole priest in the village of Dolores, Mexico who established the independence movement among the indigenous, poor mestizos, and African slaves in 1810. He was opposed by the creoles, whose power was threatened. Famous for a decree "el Grito de Dolores," (Cry of Dolores) which called for an end to slavery and to the heavy taxes imposed on the poor, which led to a 200 mile march for independence to the capital. When captured and executed, he became a martyr and symbol of Mexican Independence, or the "Father of Mexican Independence."
Father José Morelos
A mestizo Roman Catholic priest and revolutionary rebel leader who led the Mexican War of Independence movement, assuming its leadership after the execution of Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla in 1811. He wanted universal manhood suffrage, the abolition of slavery, and improved conditions for Mexicans in general. Captured by the Spanish colonial authorities and executed for treason in 1815.
Jóse de San Martin
A great general who helped Argentina, Chile, & Peru win independence; Revolutionary leader, born in Argentina as a creole, he freed Chile and joined Bolivar to free Peru, becoming known as the protector of Peru.
Son of the Portuguese King that ruled Brazil and declared it independent in 1822. When his father left Brazil and returned to Portugal he was named regent. He implemented a number of decisions without consulting the government in Portugal. Creoles demanded independence and 8,000 Brazilians signed a petition asking that he become emperor of Brazil. Brazilian independence was proclaimed, without a shot being fired.
huge political change
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