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Chapter 31 Communicable Diseases

The infectious disease stage in which the antigen is present but no antibody is detectable is the ______________ stage.
A) A. Communicable
B) B. Incubation
C) C. Latent
D) D. Window
The hepatitis ____ virus is most commonly transmitted by contaminated needles.
D) D. D/delta
The most severe and potentially life-threatening form of meningitis is ______________ sometimes caused by ____________.
A) A. Bacterial/Neisseria meningitides
B) B. Bacterial/tuberculosis
C) C. Viral/streptococcus pneumoniae
D) D. Viral/viral pneumonia
An acute disease caused by the Epstein-Barr virus, a member of the herpes family is:
A) A. Influenza
B) B. Mononucleosis
C) C. Pertussis
D) D. Rabies
Inflammation and swelling of the cornea is known as:
A) A. Keratitis
B) B. Malaise
C) C. Prodrome
D) D. Risus sardonicus
Who is responsible for protecting the public from disease?
C) C. Local hospital
D) D. Your employer
Incubation, window, communicable, latent, and disease period are stages of:
A) A. Allergic reactions
B) B. Infectious disease
C) C. Infection plans
D) D. Paramedic stress factors
As a paramedic, you should take standard precautions with any patient with unknown respiratory pathogens, and you should also:
A) A. Contact the CDC.
B) B. Keep patient as far away from you.
C) C. There is need to worry because the patient will be in your care for a short period of time.
D) D. Place surgical mask on patient.
The interval between exposure to an agent and the first appearance of symptoms is the
A) A. Disease period
B) B. Incubation period
C) C. Latent phase
D) D. Window phase
EMS agency employers are required by law to provide employees with appropriate medical care and treatment in the event of an exposure and designate a person or officer to whom the employee should report the exposure. This is under:
B) B. Medical control
C) C. Roe v. Wade
D) D. The Ryan White Act
Identify a transmission route for hepatitis C.
A) a. Contaminated feces
B) c. Semen and vaginal fluids
C) b. Infected blood
D) d. Sharing food and water
A viral infection resulting in swelling of the salivary and parotid glands is:
A) b. Chickenpox
B) a. An allergic reaction
C) c. Mumps
D) d. Rubella
The time period from exposure until when disease symptoms first appear is the:
A) b. Incubation period
B) d. Window phase
C) a. Communicable period
D) c. Latent period
You have the greatest risk of contracting which bloodborne pathogen from a needle stick?
A) c. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
B) b. Hepatitis B
C) d. Tuberculosis
D) a. Hepatitis A
The vulnerability or weakness to a specific pathogen is known as:
A) c. Reactability
B) a. Immunity rate
C) d. Susceptibility
D) b. Infection rate
You have been splashed in the face with the blood of a patient with hepatitis C. After washing your face and eyes with water for at least 10 minutes, you are required to:
A) d. Request prophylaxis medications from the receiving emergency department
B) c. Report the incident to a supervisor or the infection control officer
C) b. Mandate that the patient pay for your medical expenses if you get hepatitis C
D) a. Fill out a Ryan White reporting form
A woman has brought her daughter to the emergency department. The girl is 4-years-old and has been suffering from a worsening, 'hacking' cough for several days. As you evaluate the child, her temperature is 104° F, her eyelids appear swollen, her eyes are red with a crusty discharge, and she has reddish spots on her forehead, lips, and in her mouth. You quickly identify this patient as having:
A) a. Chickenpox
B) c. Measles (rubeola)
C) d. Mumps
D) b. German measles (rubella)
You are presented with a 24-year-old female patient in the back bedroom of a low-income apartment. Her husband tells you she has had a worsening headache over the past few days. She is laying on the covers in the dark. When you turn on the light, she winces, and complains the light makes her headache worse and causes dizziness. You notice that her skin is flushed and she is sweating despite a cold apartment, and you also notice that her neck appears stiff as she moves. Your next action is to:
A) c. Perform a physical exam of the head and neck
B) a. Administer an antipyretic to reduce any fever and the pain
C) b. Apply oxygen and listen to lung sounds
D) d. Remove yourself from the room and put on an N-95 mask or other protective mask
A paramedic can become infected with tuberculosis by:
A) d. Sharing food or water with an infected individual
B) c. Being exposed to membrane droplet nuclei expelled during a cough, sneeze, or prolonged talking
C) b. Being stuck with a needle that had been used on a patient with tuberculosis
D) a. Allowing feces contaminated with tubercle bacilli to touch the skin
Outbreaks associated with the HSV-1 infection generally occur:
A) d. In the oropharynx
B) b. Evenly across the body
C) c. In the genital region
D) a. Around the anus
Rubella affects the:
A) a. Circulatory and musculoskeletal systems
B) c. Respiratory and nervous systems, and oropharynx
C) d. Respiratory, circulatory, and nervous systems
D) b. Integumentary and musculoskeletal systems
The human immunodeficiency virus can be spread through:
A) a. Coughing
B) c. Heavy sweating
C) b. Hand-to-hand contact
D) d. Sexual intercourse
Which form of hepatitis is not considered a complete virus?
A) b. Hepatitis B
B) c. Hepatitis C
C) d. Hepatitis D
D) a. Hepatitis A
A diagnosis of bacterial meningitis is typically associated with:
A) c. Septic shock
B) b. Internal bleeding in the spinal column
C) d. The absence of other infections
D) a. Another infection such as pneumonia or endocarditis
You are caring for a 73-year-old female in a nursing home who is experiencing respiratory distress that worsened throughout the night. Currently you find her seated upright in bed with accessory muscle use. Audible rales can be heard; she is diaphoretic and warm to the touch, she has a temperature of 102° F, and her respiratory rate is 32 breaths/min. The patient tells you that her breathing has been getting worse all night. You auscultate the chest and hear rales and rhonchi in all fields of her left lung and rhonchi in her right base, but her right middle and upper lobes sound clear. You determine that this patient is experiencing respiratory distress caused by:
A) d. Tuberculosis
B) b. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
C) a. Congestive heart failure
D) c. Pneumonia
Males who have contracted chlamydia may experience:
A) d. Open sores on the penis and scrotum
B) b. Development of lesions on the penis
C) a. A urinary tract infection
D) c. Discharge from the urethra
The time period when an infected disease can be transmitted to another host is known as the:
A) d. Window phase
B) b. Incubation period
C) c. Latent period
D) a. Communicable period
Gonorrhea can be cured with the use of:
A) b. Antibiotics
B) c. Antifungal drugs
C) d. There is no definitive cure
D) a. Antiparasitic drugs
The responsibility of appropriately disposing of equipment and supplies potentially infected with a disease lies with the:
A) c. Patient
B) a. Hospital staff
C) b. Paramedic
D) d. Ambulance/transporting agency
During the care of a 44-year-old female patient who was ejected from her SUV during a highway-speed rollover, her arterial bleeding results in blood splashing onto your face and eyes. Besides stopping care to immediately flush your face, it is your right to:
A) c. Request that you and the patient both be tested for communicable diseases
B) b. Receive workers' compensation for the remainder of your working years
C) d. Sue the patient
D) a. Receive postexposure prophylaxis for hepatitis and HIV
The time period when an infected person cannot transmit a disease to another individual is known as the:
A) b. Incubation period
B) c. Latent period
C) d. Window phase
D) a. Communicable period
The MMR vaccine protects recipients from:
A) a. Malaria, mumps, and Reye's syndrome
B) c. Measles, malaria, and Reye's syndrome
C) d. Measles, mumps, and rubella
D) b. Malaria, mumps, and rubella
A viral disease once commonly seen in children but that now appears in fewer than 500 cases per year is:
A) c. Mumps
B) a. Fifth disease
C) d. RSV
D) b. Chickenpox
Outbreaks associated with the HSV-2 infection generally occur:
A) c. In the genital region
B) b. Evenly across the body
C) a. Around the anus
D) d. In the oropharynx
The rubella virus can be spread through contact with infected:
A) a. Blood
B) b. Feces
C) c. Saliva
D) d. Skin/open lesions and blisters
The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1):
A) a. Affects 80% of the human population
B) b. Has been eliminated from the human species and no cases are currently known to exist
C) d. Affects approximately half of the human population
D) c. Is relatively rare, affecting 2% to 3% of the population
The administration of aspirin to a child with chickenpox can cause:
A) c. Raynaud's phenomenon
B) d. The lesions to worsen
C) a. Mild internal bleeding
D) b. Reye's syndrome
Treatment for influenza is often limited to:
A) b. Antibiotics
B) c. Antiviral drugs
C) a. A specific antiflu drug
D) d. Supportive care only
Personal protective equipment designed to prevent a tuberculosis exposure include:
A) c. A surgical gown
B) b. A full face mask
C) a. A disposable particulate respirator
D) d. Placing the patient on a nonrebreather mask
Gonorrhea is an STD caused by a:
A) b. Fungus
B) a. Bacteria
C) c. Parasite
D) d. Virus
The condition that results in bacteria passing the blood-brain barrier and increasing cerebral vascular permeability, thus increasing intracranial pressure, is known as:
A) d. Tuberculosis
B) c. Meningitis
C) a. Hepatitis
D) b. HIV
Hepatitis E spreads most similar to:
A) d. Tuberculosis
B) c. HIV
C) a. Hepatitis A
D) b. Hepatitis B
Rabies primarily affects which body system?
A) d. Respiratory system
B) c. Central nervous system
C) b. Musculoskeletal system
D) a. Circulatory system
The body's second line of defense against infections is the:
A) a. Antibodies
B) c. Skin
C) d. White blood cells
D) b. Inflammatory response
Hepatitis D becomes pathogenic when a patient has:
A) d. HIV
B) a. Hepatitis A
C) b. Hepatitis B
D) c. Hepatitis C
Which body system attempts to fight off infectious diseases?
A) d. Respiratory system
B) a. Circulatory system
C) b. Immune system
D) c. Nervous system
Which of the following patients is at greatest risk for developing chronic hepatitis after being exposed to hepatitis B?
A) c. A 15-year-old male
B) d. A 30-year-old male
C) a. A newborn baby boy
D) b. A 5-year-old male
Which of the following is considered a first-line defense against infection for the human body?
A) c. Skin
B) a. Antibodies
C) b. Inflammatory response
D) d. White blood cells
Vectors for the rubella virus are
A) c. Humans only
B) b. Humans and mosquitoes
C) d. Mosquitoes and some spiders
D) a. Humans and domestic dogs
Infectious agents that invade a host's cell to reproduce are:
A) a. Bacteria
B) d. Viruses
C) b. Fungi
D) c. Protozoa
You are managing a 32-year-old male at the state prison who is complaining of shortness of breath and weakness. He has a fever and a cough, and he occasionally spits up bloody phlegm. Appropriate Standard Precautions for this patient are:
A) c. Gloves only
B) d. A face mask and a nonrebreather mask on the patient
C) a. Gloves and a face mask
D) b. Gloves, a gown, a face mask, and eye protection
The rash from a scabies infection is described as:
A) b. Generalized redness and burning across the body
B) d. Patchy red lesions that are itchy
C) a. Acne anywhere on the body
D) c. Open painful ulcers around skin folds
Lice are treated with:
A) a. Antibiotics
B) c. Shaving the hair in the infected region
C) b. Intense heat
D) d. Topical medications and washes
While working in a college campus clinic, you have observed that several students over the past 3 days complaining of increased coughing with nausea and vomiting. Your latest patient, a 19-year-old male, has periods of uncontrollable spastic coughing, a mild fever, and intermittent vomiting. What you notice most about his cough is that he will be fine for several minutes and then suddenly begin to cough forcefully for up to 1 minute. He is unable to control when and for how long he coughs, and he seems to always cough in batches. You suspect that there may be an outbreak of what disease on campus?
A) c. Pertussis
B) d. Pneumonia
C) a. Asthma attacks
D) b. Influenza
Which of the following groups is at risk for exposure to hepatitis A?
A) d. Nurses working in a prison first-aid station
B) a. A basketball team showering in the same showers
C) c. A patient living in a home for patients with developmental disabilities
D) b. A group of friends traveling to Africa
Your patient has a known history of hepatitis B and HIV and is complaining about abdominal pain. Appropriate Standard Precautions include:
A) a. Gloves and a face mask
B) b. Gloves, a gown, a face mask, and eye protection
C) c. Gloves only
D) d. A face mask and a nonrebreather mask on the patient
If, after being tested following an exposure to an infectious disease at work, medical screening finds you to be positive for the disease, the testing healthcare provider is required to report the findings to:
A) b. You and OSHA
B) a. You alone
C) c. You and the Department of Public Health
D) d. You and your employer
A scabies infection develops when what type of parasite burrows under the skin?
A) b. Mites
B) d. Worms
C) c. Ticks
D) a. Lice
Prehospital management of gastroenteritis may include:
A) a. Administering activated charcoal to kill the source of the virus
B) d. Initiating IV fluids
C) c. Initiating IV antibiotics
D) b. Administering syrup of ipecac
Proper tick removal is accomplished by:
A) d. Squeezing the body and pulling it out
B) c. Placing a heated match stick against the tick
C) b. Grabbing the tick as close to the surface of the skin as possible with tweezers and pulling it directly out of the skin
D) a. Applying a nonbreathable lubricant onto the tick so it self-withdraws