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Apologia Exploring Creation with Human Anatomy & Physiology


the process of breaking down food into the usable nutrients and waste products

digestive system

a group of organs that take in and digest food, and eliminate solid wastes

gastrointestinal tract

part of the digestive system that food passes through; a long, muscular tube consisting of several organs: the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine

alimentary canal

another name for the gastrointestinal tract


one of the main nutrients needed by the body; it is a sugar or a starch; changes to glucose in body


one of the main nutrients needed by the body; found in meat and fish


one of the main nutrients needed by the body; comes from oil, nuts, butter, and meat


the removal of waste products from the body

mechanical digestion

the grinding up and moving along of food; the physical breakdown of food into smaller pieces


teeth that are sharp and useful for biting


teeth that are sharp and made for tearing food


in front of molars and used for grinding food


behind premolars and used for grinding food


the food and beverages a person eats and drinks


hardest substance in body; non-living, outermost layer of a tooth


supports the enamel and absorbs shocks that could damage the tooth, bone-like material found below enamel


the soft inner part of a tooth where the nerves and blood vessels are found


the visible part of the tooth above the gums

chemical digestion

when saliva begins to break down food into much smaller chemical parts; the digestion process in which enzymes are used to break foods into their smaller chemical building blocks


the spit in your mouth; a colorless liquid that moistens the mouth, begins the digestive process, and lubricates food during chewing and swallowing


chemicals in your body that do many things; these break down food into smaller chemical pieces


enzyme in saliva that breaks the chemical bonds in starches


the ball of food in your mouth that forms while you chew


the tube in the back of your mouth leading to your lungs


a ring of muscle that contracts to close an opening

gastroesophageal sphincter

the special circular muscle between the esophagus and the stomach


a powerful enzyme in your stomach that can break down proteins


a reflex that expels air noisily from the stomach through the mouth.


to expel the contents of the stomach through the mouth


a protective secretion of the mucous membranes; a thick, slimy liquid that keeps the stomach acid from coming into contact with the stomach wall,

pyloric sphincter

the specialized circular muscle that allows chyme to go from the stomach to the small intestine


part of the small intestine; only 1 foot long, where most of chemical digestion takes place


part of the small intestine; 8 feet long; absorb nutrients from digestion


part of the small intestine; 11 feet long; absorbs nutrients from digestion


tiny, finger-like structures that protrude from the wall of the intestine; where nutrients are absorbed into the blood


an organ where nutrients are stored or distributed throughout the body; mostly stores glucose


strings of glucose put together


a chemical made in the liver and delivered to the gall bladder

gall bladder

on organ that releases bile into the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine


an organ that makes insulin

pancreatic juices

made by the pancreas; neutralizes the acid in chyme and helps to digest fats

ileocecal sphincter

the circular muscle between the small and large intestine


first part of the large intestine; appendix is attached here


second part of the large intestine; between the cecum and the rectum


third part of the large intestine; where feces are stored before being eliminated


the solid waste material we put into the toilet


a close nutritional relationship between two species in which one always benefits


attached to the cecum; an organ where friendly bacteria hide


the passage of excessive amounts of gas in the stomach or intestines due to the digestion of complex carbohydrates


part of grains and plant foods that provides bulk but cannot be digested


organs that filter wastes from blood to make urine

renal system

urinary system; the organs and structures responsible for filtering and excreting wastes from the blood.


tubes attached to the kidneys that allow urine to leave the kidney


the organ that holds the urine until you can find a bathroom


a special flap of cartilage at the back of the throat

large intestine

an organ whose main job is to form the chyme into feces

What is the white outer layer of your tooth called?


What is the layer right below that called?


What is the hardest substance in the


Name a few things saliva does for you.

Begins chemical digestion, protects teeth, defends against infection, and makes food taste better.

What is the name of the pipe that food goes down after you swallow it?


How do your stomach and esophagus keep from getting burned by your own stomach acid?

Mucus is produced in the stomach, and the gastroesophageal sphincter keeps it in the stomach.

What is the food called when it enters the small intestine?


What happens in the small intestine?

Digestion is completed, and nutrients are sent to the bloodstream.

Which organ is like a huge chemical


What do the kidneys do?

They remove excess salts, water, and other substances from the blood and put them in the urine.

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