Apologia Anatomy & Physiology Lesson 4 Digestive System
Apologia Exploring Creation with Human Anatomy & Physiology
the process of breaking down food into the usable nutrients and waste products
a group of organs that take in and digest food, and eliminate solid wastes
part of the digestive system that food passes through; a long, muscular tube consisting of several organs: the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine
another name for the gastrointestinal tract
one of the main nutrients needed by the body; it is a sugar or a starch; changes to glucose in body
one of the main nutrients needed by the body; found in meat and fish
one of the main nutrients needed by the body; comes from oil, nuts, butter, and meat
the removal of waste products from the body
the grinding up and moving along of food; the physical breakdown of food into smaller pieces
teeth that are sharp and useful for biting
teeth that are sharp and made for tearing food
in front of molars and used for grinding food
behind premolars and used for grinding food
the food and beverages a person eats and drinks
hardest substance in body; non-living, outermost layer of a tooth
supports the enamel and absorbs shocks that could damage the tooth, bone-like material found below enamel
the soft inner part of a tooth where the nerves and blood vessels are found
the visible part of the tooth above the gums
when saliva begins to break down food into much smaller chemical parts; the digestion process in which enzymes are used to break foods into their smaller chemical building blocks
the spit in your mouth; a colorless liquid that moistens the mouth, begins the digestive process, and lubricates food during chewing and swallowing
chemicals in your body that do many things; these break down food into smaller chemical pieces
enzyme in saliva that breaks the chemical bonds in starches
the ball of food in your mouth that forms while you chew
the tube in the back of your mouth leading to your lungs
a ring of muscle that contracts to close an opening
the special circular muscle between the esophagus and the stomach
a powerful enzyme in your stomach that can break down proteins
a reflex that expels air noisily from the stomach through the mouth.
to expel the contents of the stomach through the mouth
a protective secretion of the mucous membranes; a thick, slimy liquid that keeps the stomach acid from coming into contact with the stomach wall,
the specialized circular muscle that allows chyme to go from the stomach to the small intestine
part of the small intestine; only 1 foot long, where most of chemical digestion takes place
part of the small intestine; 8 feet long; absorb nutrients from digestion
part of the small intestine; 11 feet long; absorbs nutrients from digestion
tiny, finger-like structures that protrude from the wall of the intestine; where nutrients are absorbed into the blood
an organ where nutrients are stored or distributed throughout the body; mostly stores glucose
strings of glucose put together
a chemical made in the liver and delivered to the gall bladder
on organ that releases bile into the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine
an organ that makes insulin
made by the pancreas; neutralizes the acid in chyme and helps to digest fats
the circular muscle between the small and large intestine
first part of the large intestine; appendix is attached here
second part of the large intestine; between the cecum and the rectum
third part of the large intestine; where feces are stored before being eliminated
the solid waste material we put into the toilet
a close nutritional relationship between two species in which one always benefits
attached to the cecum; an organ where friendly bacteria hide
the passage of excessive amounts of gas in the stomach or intestines due to the digestion of complex carbohydrates
part of grains and plant foods that provides bulk but cannot be digested
organs that filter wastes from blood to make urine
urinary system; the organs and structures responsible for filtering and excreting wastes from the blood.
tubes attached to the kidneys that allow urine to leave the kidney
the organ that holds the urine until you can find a bathroom
a special flap of cartilage at the back of the throat
an organ whose main job is to form the chyme into feces
What is the white outer layer of your tooth called?
What is the layer right below that called?
What is the hardest substance in the
Name a few things saliva does for you.
Begins chemical digestion, protects teeth, defends against infection, and makes food taste better.
What is the name of the pipe that food goes down after you swallow it?
How do your stomach and esophagus keep from getting burned by your own stomach acid?
Mucus is produced in the stomach, and the gastroesophageal sphincter keeps it in the stomach.
What is the food called when it enters the small intestine?
What happens in the small intestine?
Digestion is completed, and nutrients are sent to the bloodstream.
Which organ is like a huge chemical
What do the kidneys do?
They remove excess salts, water, and other substances from the blood and put them in the urine.