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66 terms

Apologia Anatomy & Physiology Lesson 4 Digestive System

Apologia Exploring Creation with Human Anatomy & Physiology
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digestion
the process of breaking down food into the usable nutrients and waste products
digestive system
a group of organs that take in and digest food, and eliminate solid wastes
gastrointestinal tract
part of the digestive system that food passes through; a long, muscular tube consisting of several organs: the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine
alimentary canal
another name for the gastrointestinal tract
carbohydrates
one of the main nutrients needed by the body; it is a sugar or a starch; changes to glucose in body
proteins
one of the main nutrients needed by the body; found in meat and fish
fats
one of the main nutrients needed by the body; comes from oil, nuts, butter, and meat
defecation
the removal of waste products from the body
mechanical digestion
the grinding up and moving along of food; the physical breakdown of food into smaller pieces
incisors
teeth that are sharp and useful for biting
cuspids
teeth that are sharp and made for tearing food
premolars
in front of molars and used for grinding food
molars
behind premolars and used for grinding food
diet
the food and beverages a person eats and drinks
enamel
hardest substance in body; non-living, outermost layer of a tooth
dentin
supports the enamel and absorbs shocks that could damage the tooth, bone-like material found below enamel
pulp
the soft inner part of a tooth where the nerves and blood vessels are found
crown
the visible part of the tooth above the gums
chemical digestion
when saliva begins to break down food into much smaller chemical parts; the digestion process in which enzymes are used to break foods into their smaller chemical building blocks
saliva
the spit in your mouth; a colorless liquid that moistens the mouth, begins the digestive process, and lubricates food during chewing and swallowing
enzyme
chemicals in your body that do many things; these break down food into smaller chemical pieces
amylase
enzyme in saliva that breaks the chemical bonds in starches
bolus
the ball of food in your mouth that forms while you chew
larynx
the tube in the back of your mouth leading to your lungs
sphincter
a ring of muscle that contracts to close an opening
gastroesophageal sphincter
the special circular muscle between the esophagus and the stomach
pepsin
a powerful enzyme in your stomach that can break down proteins
burp
a reflex that expels air noisily from the stomach through the mouth.
vomiting
to expel the contents of the stomach through the mouth
mucus
a protective secretion of the mucous membranes; a thick, slimy liquid that keeps the stomach acid from coming into contact with the stomach wall,
pyloric sphincter
the specialized circular muscle that allows chyme to go from the stomach to the small intestine
duodenum
part of the small intestine; only 1 foot long, where most of chemical digestion takes place
jejunum
part of the small intestine; 8 feet long; absorb nutrients from digestion
ileum
part of the small intestine; 11 feet long; absorbs nutrients from digestion
villi
tiny, finger-like structures that protrude from the wall of the intestine; where nutrients are absorbed into the blood
liver
an organ where nutrients are stored or distributed throughout the body; mostly stores glucose
glycogen
strings of glucose put together
bile
a chemical made in the liver and delivered to the gall bladder
gall bladder
on organ that releases bile into the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine
pancreas
an organ that makes insulin
pancreatic juices
made by the pancreas; neutralizes the acid in chyme and helps to digest fats
ileocecal sphincter
the circular muscle between the small and large intestine
cecum
first part of the large intestine; appendix is attached here
colon
second part of the large intestine; between the cecum and the rectum
rectum
third part of the large intestine; where feces are stored before being eliminated
feces
the solid waste material we put into the toilet
symbiotic
a close nutritional relationship between two species in which one always benefits
appendix
attached to the cecum; an organ where friendly bacteria hide
flatulence
the passage of excessive amounts of gas in the stomach or intestines due to the digestion of complex carbohydrates
fiber
part of grains and plant foods that provides bulk but cannot be digested
kidneys
organs that filter wastes from blood to make urine
renal system
urinary system; the organs and structures responsible for filtering and excreting wastes from the blood.
ureters
tubes attached to the kidneys that allow urine to leave the kidney
bladder
the organ that holds the urine until you can find a bathroom
epiglottis
a special flap of cartilage at the back of the throat
large intestine
an organ whose main job is to form the chyme into feces
What is the white outer layer of your tooth called?
Enamel
What is the layer right below that called?
Dentin
What is the hardest substance in the
body?
Enamel
Name a few things saliva does for you.
Begins chemical digestion, protects teeth, defends against infection, and makes food taste better.
What is the name of the pipe that food goes down after you swallow it?
Esophagus
How do your stomach and esophagus keep from getting burned by your own stomach acid?
Mucus is produced in the stomach, and the gastroesophageal sphincter keeps it in the stomach.
What is the food called when it enters the small intestine?
Chyme
What happens in the small intestine?
Digestion is completed, and nutrients are sent to the bloodstream.
Which organ is like a huge chemical
factory?
Liver
What do the kidneys do?
They remove excess salts, water, and other substances from the blood and put them in the urine.