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Apologia Exploring Creation with Human Anatomy & Physiology

gluteus maximus

largest muscle in the body that connects the femur and the pelvic girdle


the strongest muscle in body which allows humans to open and close their mouths


a disease which begins with the masseter tightening and preventing the jaw from opening; it is also called lockjaw

rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep)

part of the sleep cycle where your eyes move a lot; there is high brain activity and relaxation of the large muscles

skeletal muscles

attach to bones and allow you to move

voluntary muscles

muscles you can control by thinking about it

reflexive action

when voluntary muscles move automatically without you consciously thinking about it

muscle tone

when muscles are partially contracted


strong, flexible fibers that attach bones to skeletal muscles


a painful occurrence when tendons get inflamed from overuse

antagonistic muscles

pairs of muscles that work together so that when one muscle contracts, the other relaxes; they pull in opposite directions

extensor muscles

these muscles open the joint wider; straightening at the joint

flexor muscles

these muscles close the joint; bending at the joint

biceps brachii

muscle on the top of the upper arm

triceps brachii

muscle on the bottom of the upper arm


when a muscle becomes weak and shrinks when it is not used much

muscle fibers

skeletal muscle cell that are long and thin


strands of protein that are found in each muscle fiber


even thinner strips of cells inside the myofibrils


the stripes in skeletal muscles


a special substance that carries nutrients throughout your body


when a person is unable to move a part of their body

cardiac muscles

found in the heart; involuntary muscles

smooth muscles

these muscles have no striations or stripes; they can be found in blood vessels, stomach, intestines or bladder

What are the three kinds of muscle tissue in your body?

Skeletal, smooth and cardiac

Which of those muscle kinds are voluntary and which are involuntary?

Skeletal muscles are voluntary smooth and cardiac are involuntary.

What is muscle tone?

Partial contraction of your muscles throughout the day.

What are tendons?

The tough fibers that connect your skeletal muscles to your bones.

Where is your Achilles tendon?

In the back of your ankle.

What are antagonistic muscles?

Muscles that work opposite of each other.

What do muscle cells have a lot of that give them energy?


What things did we discuss that help muscles move?

Glucose, oxygen, vitamins and minerals

What do muscles need to grow?

Protein and exercise

How do you keep your cardiac muscles strong?

By elevating your heart rate for 30 minutes or more several times a week

Name two places in your body where you find smooth muscles

Blood vessels, stomach, intestines, and bladder

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