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Apologia Anatomy & Physiology Lesson 3 Muscular System

Apologia Exploring Creation with Human Anatomy & Physiology
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gluteus maximus
largest muscle in the body that connects the femur and the pelvic girdle
masseter
the strongest muscle in body which allows humans to open and close their mouths
tetanus
a disease which begins with the masseter tightening and preventing the jaw from opening; it is also called lockjaw
rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep)
part of the sleep cycle where your eyes move a lot; there is high brain activity and relaxation of the large muscles
skeletal muscles
attach to bones and allow you to move
voluntary muscles
muscles you can control by thinking about it
reflexive action
when voluntary muscles move automatically without you consciously thinking about it
muscle tone
when muscles are partially contracted
tendons
strong, flexible fibers that attach bones to skeletal muscles
tendonitis
a painful occurrence when tendons get inflamed from overuse
antagonistic muscles
pairs of muscles that work together so that when one muscle contracts, the other relaxes; they pull in opposite directions
extensor muscles
these muscles open the joint wider; straightening at the joint
flexor muscles
these muscles close the joint; bending at the joint
biceps brachii
muscle on the top of the upper arm
triceps brachii
muscle on the bottom of the upper arm
atrophy
when a muscle becomes weak and shrinks when it is not used much
muscle fibers
skeletal muscle cell that are long and thin
myofibrils
strands of protein that are found in each muscle fiber
filaments
even thinner strips of cells inside the myofibrils
striations
the stripes in skeletal muscles
blood
a special substance that carries nutrients throughout your body
paralyzed
when a person is unable to move a part of their body
cardiac muscles
found in the heart; involuntary muscles
smooth muscles
these muscles have no striations or stripes; they can be found in blood vessels, stomach, intestines or bladder
What are the three kinds of muscle tissue in your body?
Skeletal, smooth and cardiac
Which of those muscle kinds are voluntary and which are involuntary?
Skeletal muscles are voluntary smooth and cardiac are involuntary.
What is muscle tone?
Partial contraction of your muscles throughout the day.
What are tendons?
The tough fibers that connect your skeletal muscles to your bones.
Where is your Achilles tendon?
In the back of your ankle.
What are antagonistic muscles?
Muscles that work opposite of each other.
What do muscle cells have a lot of that give them energy?
Mitochondria
What things did we discuss that help muscles move?
Glucose, oxygen, vitamins and minerals
What do muscles need to grow?
Protein and exercise
How do you keep your cardiac muscles strong?
By elevating your heart rate for 30 minutes or more several times a week
Name two places in your body where you find smooth muscles
Blood vessels, stomach, intestines, and bladder