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Apologia Anatomy and Physiology Lesson 5 Health and Nutrition

Apologia's Anatomy and Physiology First Class Kitsap County Co-op Nutrition
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Protein
A strand of amino acids; a substance made and used in every cell in your body.
Hydrogenation
A process whereby unsaturated fats are chemically converted into saturated fats.
Glucose
Your body turns most carbohydrates into this one simple carbohydrate.
Essential Amino Acids
The nine amino acids that your body cannot make, but that are necessary for your cells to make the proteins that they need.
Simple Carbohydrates
Small carbohydrate molecules (sugars) that digest easily and provide "quick energy" for your body.
Calories
Units we use to measure energy.
Nutrients
Substances found in food and drink that your body needs to be healthy.
Atoms
The smallest units of an element that retain the properties of the element.
Carbohydrates
Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms linked together in specific forms that can be broken down to give your body the energy it needs.
Glycerol
Three fatty acid molecules are linked together with this molecule to form a fat.
Glycogen
The liver changes glucose into this complex carbohydrate. It becomes stored energy for later use.
Omega 6
This is the type of essential fatty acid that your body needs in the greatest amount. It is found in most cooking oils.
Trans Fats
Unhealthy fats that have been industrially altered through hydrogenation.
Complex carbohydrate
Large carbohydrate molecules (unrefined starches) that take a long time to digest. They release energy into your bloodstream slowly.
Glycemic index
The measure for how quickly food releases energy (in the form of glucose) into your bloodstream.
Essential Fatty Acids
The fatty acids your body can't make but must have in order to continue making the special fats it needs to survive.
Fructose
The very sweet sugar found in most fruits.
Incomplete Protein
A protein (like those found in vegetables) that contains only some of the essential amino acids.
Complete Protein
A protein, such as those from meat or eggs, that contains all nine essential amino acids.
Molecules
These are formed when two or more different kinds of atoms are linked together.
Fatty Acids
Fats are made up three molecules of these linked with a glycerol molecule.
Unsaturated Fats
Fats that are usually liquid at room temperature, such as those that come from olives or nuts.
Triglycerides
another name for fats, based on the three fatty acid molecules linked to a glycerol molecule to make a fat.
Omega 3
One of the two types of essential fatty acids your body needs. Among other foods, it can be found in tuna, dark leafy vegetables and flax seeds.
Saturated fats
Fats that are usually solid at room temperature, such as butter.
Blood sugar
what we call the glucose in your bloodstream.
Scurvy
a disease caused by a vitamin C deficiency.
Calcium
a mineral your body must have to make bones strong.
Water Soluble
A vitamin that dissolves easily in water and is NOT stored in your body. Vitamin C has this characteristic.
Goiter
A swelling of the thyroid gland that can result from a lack of iodine.
Oxidation
what occurs when fruits are exposed to air, and the oxygen stimulates cellular enzymes to begin to break down the cell walls, turning the fruit brown.
Iodine
A mineral found in seawater and iodized salt.
Iron
an important mineral for your body that is plentiful in beef.
Vitamin deficiency
a condition that occurs when your body doesn't get the proper amount of a vitamin it needs.
Fat soluble
A vitamin that dissolves easily in fat and is stored in your body. Vitamin A has this characteristic.
Rickets
a disease caused by a vitamin D deficiency, affecting how bones grow and remodel
Antioxidant
something that helps to stop the oxidation process
Coenzyme
an enzyme's helper. Some vitamins play this helper role in your body.
Sodium
one of the minerals that your body needs most. It is found in table salt.
Mineral
A nutrient originally obtained from non living sources. These nutrients are usually found in the earth, rivers, lakes, streams and oceans, and many are required by your body.
How do you know if you are dehydrated?
Thirst, dark urine.
Why do simple carbohydrates give you quick burst of energy, while complex carbohydrates don't necessarily do that?
Many complex carbohydrates take longer to digest.
What do carbohydrates change into inside the body?
Simple carbohydrates, mostly glucose.
Proteins are made of what kind of molecules strung together?
Amino acids
What is a complete protein?
A complete protein contains all the essential amino acids.
Which foods provide your body with omega-3 fatty acids?
Salmon, tuna, sardines, dark leafy green vegetables, avocados, sesame seeds, walnuts, pumpkin seeds, flax seed and sesame seeds.
Name three vitamins that are important to get, and tell why they are important
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Where are minerals found?
In the earth and in the world's lakes, rivers, streams, and oceans
Name two minerals, and tell why they are important for your body.
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