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Terms in this set (36)
What is imperialism?
The domination by one country of the political, economic, or cultural life of another country or region
What was the only Southern Asian nation to remain independent?
What were some of the justifications/movements for imperialism?
- Justified by saying that the Europeans had the right to provide for the growing population
- Stimulation of trade
- Access to natural resources
- New markets of consumers
- Bank ventures to invest profits
- Outlet for growing population
- Naval bases needed
- Colonies needed for national security
- A "duty" to spread the blessings of Western civilization
- Social Darwinism
What was quinine? The maxim gun?
Quinine= malaria vaccine
Maxim gun= first recoil-operated machine gun
What were the causes and results of the Opium Wars?
The British started to sell opium in China, eventually paying off their debt, but opium was made illegal in China. The British opposed this law because it cost them money, so the British started the Opium War to force the Chinese to allow them to sell opium. The British won and forced the Chinese to accept a new trade agreement that was favorable to the British and to give them Hong Kong
What was the Boxer rebellion? Why was it fought?
The Boxer rebellion was a rebellion by the Society of Harmonious Fists (the "Boxers") against foreign rule, because this group hated foreign rule in China.
What were spheres of influence? What country was split into spheres of influence?
Spheres of influence were areas that certain countries controlled, and China was split into spheres of influence.
What were the causes and results of the Philippine-American War?
The U.S. went to war with Spain, and when the Spanish lost the war the U.S. decided to convert the islands into American colonies. The Filipinos resisted the occupation, causing the two countries to go to war. The U.S. ended up winning the war, with death tolls being higher on the Philippine side.
What were Sepoys? What caused them to revolt? What does Indian historian Amaresh Misra claim happened in response to the revolt?
Sepoys were Indian soldiers hired to protect the interests of the British East India Company. A rebellion was sparked by a rumor that British bullets were greased with cow and pig fat, and because they favored independence. Misra claimed that the British killed 10 million Indians in response to the revolt
What was China's last dynasty?
Who was Cecil Rhodes?
Britain's strongest promoter of the British Empire and imperialism
For what reasons did Rhodes say that the expansion of the British Empire would be positive? Where does he propose expanding?
- He says that there would be millions more English living, the more of the world inhabited by the English is better for the human race, extra employment, the end of all wars
- Proposed expanding into Africa
Why did Rhodes want to form a secret society?
In order to extend the British Empire and bring the uncivilized world under British rule for the recovery of the U.S. and making the Anglo-Saxons one empire
Why did Rhodes say it would have been better for America if they had not become independent from Britain?
He says that America would have had a better government and more Englishmen would have populated America, therefore making it a better country
What was the battle of Omdurman?
A battle between the British and Sudanese in which the British killed 10,000 Sudanese soldiers
What was the Scramble for Africa?
When several countries began establishing colonies in Africa
What conference led to the Scramble for Africa?
the Berlin Conference
What were the only two African countries to remain independent?
Liberia and Ethiopia
What was the Battle of Isandhlwana?
An unlikely defeat of the British by the Zulu
What was the Anglo-Boer War?
Imperialist Cecil Rhodes tried to take over the Boer territory in Southern Africa, but failed. In 1899, the British attempted to conquer the Boer territory again, starting the Anglo-Boer war. It took the British until 1902 to win, even though they had three times as many troops.
What was the first nation in Latin America to gain its independence? Why did the US refuse to recognize them as an independent nation?
Haiti; after Haiti gained its independence from France in 1804 through slave rebellion, the pro-slavery south worried this event could influence slaves in the US, and America refused to recognize Haiti's independence.
Who was Miguel Hidalgo?
A creole priest in Mexico who inspired Mexicans to fight for their independence. He called for end to slavery and plead for reforms to improve conditions for Native Americans. He was eventually captured and executed.
What two men are known as the liberators of South America?
Simón Bolívar, José San Martín
Summarize the poem the White Man's Burden. What was the "white man's burden"? What were the positives he believed European rule would bring to the natives?
This poem is saying that white men should send people to control people they see as savages and who must be civilized, but that the native's laziness, foolishness, and absence of religion will ruin the European's goals. The natives will dislike the Europeans for trying to civilize them. The "white man's burden" is the duty of the civilized Europeans and Americans to civilize savage native people. Kipling says that European rule would bring financial gain to Europeans, and that the natives would get the benefits of civilization.
In Things Fall Apart, what changes did the white man bring to Umuofia? What can we learn from the differences between Achebe's title "Things Fall Apart" and the European commissioner's book title?
The white man had many people who were part of the Umuofian society defect and join his religion and help uphold his government. From the book titles, we learn that European conquest changes and destroys these tribes (Achebe's book). The Commissioner's title tells us that they thought they were improving the way of life of these primitive, savage people. They think that they are superior to this nation that they believe must be pacified.
What is Linqvuist's thesis in Exterminate All The Brutes? (Put this answer in your own words). What are some examples of past genocides he mentions to help support his argument?
Hitler's genocide was not original, and was inspired by the practices used by Europeans when they conquered land belonging to natives. He uses the genocide of the Guanches, Tasmanians, and the Herero people to support his argument.
Find four ways that Things Fall Apart can be considered a response to White Man's Burden.
1. In White Man's Burden, Kipling mentions the conquering of the natives as a duty that the white men have, but in Things Fall Apart it mentions the consequences of their conquering
2. In White Man's Burden Kipling calls the natives heathens, and in Things Fall Apart there is a better explanation of the natives and what they are really like
3. In White Man's Burden Kipling says that they are conquering for the benefit of the nations, but in Things Fall Apart it is shown that it does not benefit the nations at all
4. In White Man's Burden Kipling says that the Europeans will bring the blessings of civilization to the natives but they will not appreciate them, and in Things Fall Apart it is shown that the Europeans did not bring blessings to them
What does Naoroji list as the benefits and detriments of British rule in India? (List at least four of each).
BENEFITS: Abolition of infanticide, freedom of speech and liberty of the press, increase of exports, loans for railways and irrigation
DETRIMENTS: Natives being treated as inferior people, taxation, loss of manufacturing industry and skill, political debt
Who was Hong Xiuquan? Why did people follow him?
Believed he was the second son of God, and sent to be the savior of China. Converted to his own brand of Christianity, alleged the Manchu dynasty were devils he was sent to eliminate. Committed suicide after it became clear that he would not win the war. People followed him because some believed his political message, some were inspired by his promise of economic and gender equality, some welcomed his attempt to eliminate the foreign conquerors, and some wanted to take advantage and join the side that was winning.
What were the goals and promises of the Taiping?
An earthy paradise and that they would be rewarded after death, men and women treated as equals, all property turned over to Taiping treasury for common good.
How was the government finally able to end the rebellion?
The Manchu government (with help from foreign armies) began to take back land that had been under Taiping control.
How many people died as a result of the rebellion?
Who was Li Xiucheng?
One of the last loyal Taiping generals to be captured by the Manchus.
Who was King Leopold? How did he justify his intervention in Africa?
King Leopold, from Belgium, known for the founding and exploitation of the Congo Free State. Claimed he was intervening in Africa to open up an undiscovered part of the world, establish trading routes and abolish the slave trade, and establish peace among the chiefs of tribes. His actual intentions were to set up a colony in Africa and get as much profit as possible.
How were the natives in the "Congo Free State" treated? (Be specific).
Raided villages and took hostages, had forced laborers carry ivory and food, shot entire villages on site for refusing to bring in rubber, had people beheaded.
Who was Edmund Morel and what did he discover?
A low level clerk for a shipping company. He discovered a large number of arms and ammunition were being sent to the Congo, that someone was stealing tens of millions of dollars, and that the Congo was exporting so much rubber and ivory that the natives were getting next to nothing.
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