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The Endocrine System

Chapter 16 in Martini's Visual Anatomy and Physiology
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All of the following are true of the nervous system, except that it does not
function independently of the endocrine system`
Endocrine cells
release their secretions directly into body fluids
Hormones known as "catecholamines" are
derivitives of the amino acid tyrosine
Peptide hormones are
composed of amino acids
All of the following are true of steroid hormones except that they
are produced by reproductive glands
Each of the following hormones is an amino acid derivative except
thyroid-stimulating hormone
Extracellular membrane receptors are used by which of the following types of hormones?
catecholamines, peptide hormones, eicosanoids
Steroid hormones
bind to receptors in the nucleus of their target cell
When a catecholamine or peptide hormone binds receptors on the surface of a cell, the
second messenger appears in the cytoplasm
Hormones can be divided into different groups based on their chemistry. These categories include
peptides, steroids, eicosanoids, amino acid derivatives
Hormonal actions on cells include those that affect
quantities of enzymes, activities of enzymes, synthesis of enzymes, gating of ion channels
The link between a first messenger and a second messenger in a cell that responds to peptide hormones is usually
a G protein
When adenyl cyclase is activated
ATP is consumed, cAMP is formed
After a steroid hormone binds to its receptor to form an active complex
gene transcription is initiated
The most complex endocrine responses involve the
hypothalamus
Hormone release may be controlled by which of the following factors?
blood level of an ion-like potassium, blood level of glucose, blood level of a hormone, nervous stimuli
Changes in blood osmotic pressure would most affect the secretion of
ADH
Regulatory factors that control secretion of adenohypophyseal hormones are release by neurons at the __________ of the hypothalamus.
median eminence
The hypothalamus controls secretion by the adenohypophysis by
secreting releasing and inhibiting factors into a tiny portal system
Neurons of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus manufacture
ADH and oxytocin
Secretory cells of the adenohypophysis release
FSH, TSH, and GH
The posterior pituitary gland secrets
ADH
The hormone produced by the pars intermedia of the adenohypophysis during early childhood is
MSH
Each of the following hormones is produced by the pars distalis of the adenohypophysis, except
oxytocin
The hormone oxytocin
Promotes uterine contractions, is responsible for milk expression from mammary glands, triggers prostate gland contraction
Growth hormone does all of the following except that it
causes fat accumulation within adipocytes
Liver cells respond to growth hormone by releasing hormones called
somatomedins
The pituitary hormone that triggers the release of thyroid hormone from the thyroid gland is
TSH
The pituitary hormone that controls the release of glucocorticoids from the suprarenal cortex is
ACTH
The pituitary hormone that promotes egg development in ovaries and sperm development in testes is
FSH
The pituitary hormone that promotes ovarian secretion of progesterone and testicular secretion of testosterone is
LH
The pituitary hormone that stimulates milk production by the mammary glands is
prolactin
The pituitary gland that stimulates cell growth and replication by accelerating protein synthesis is
somatotropin
The pituitary hormone that causes the kidney to reduce water loss is
ADH
Which of the following is a known effect of thyroid hormone on peripheral tissues?
increased oxygen consumption, increased heart rate, increased sensitivity to adrenergic stimulation, increased body temperature
Thyroid hormone contains the element
iodine
Mental and physical sluggishness and low body temperature may be signs of
hypothyroidism
The hormone that plays a pivotal role in setting the metabolic rate and thus impacting body temperature is
thyroxine
A hormone that can lower blood levels of calcium ion is
calcitonin
The condition known as goiter can result from too
little iodine in the diet.
The C cells of the thyroid gland produce
calcitonin
Increased levels of the hormone _______ will lead to increased levels of calcium in the blood.
PTH
The hormone that does the opposite of calcitonin is
parathyroid hormone
Angiotensin I is converted to angiotensin II by converting enzymes in the
lungs
The enzyme renin is responsible for the activation of
angiotensin
The parathyroid glands produce a hormone that
increases the level of calcium ions in the blood
The zona reticularis of the suprarenal cortex produces
androgens
The zona fasciculata of the suprarenal cortex produces
glucocorticoids
The zona glomerulosa of the suprarenal cortex produces
mineralocorticoids
The suprarenal medulla produces
catecholamines
A hormone that produces gluconeogenesis in the liver is
cortisol
A hormone that helps to regulate the sodium ion content of the body is
aldosterone
The pancreatic hormone that causes blood sugar levels to fall is
insulin
Too little secretion of cortisol and aldosterone causes
Addison disease
A hormone that is synergistic to growth hormone is
cortisol
Pinealocytes produce
melatonin
When blood glucose levels rise,
insulin is released
When blood glucose levels fall,
glucagon is released
Cells of the suprarenal cortex produce
aldosterone
The beta cells of the pancreatic islets produce
insulin
The delta cells of the pancreatic islets produce
somatostatin
Each of the following is true of the pineal gland, except that it
is a component of the hypothalamus
The exocrine portion of the pancreas produces
digestive enzymes
The pancreatic islets (islets of langerhans)
contain four types of endocrine cells
The pancreatic hormone that causes blood sugar to enter its target cells is
insulin
Inability of the pancreas to produce insulin results in
diabetes mellitus
The interstitial cells of the testes produce
testosterone
Follicle cells in the ovary secrete ___________ when stimulated by FSH.
estrogen
A structure known as the corpus luteum secretes
progesterone
When hormones interact they can produce any of the following kinds of effects, except
bucolic
The hormone that opposes the release of of FSH in both males and females is
inhibin
The hormones that are important for coordinating the immune response are
thymosins
Which of these hormones increases production of red blood cells?
erythropoietin
Proper growth requires which of these hormones?
thyroid hormone, calcitrol, insulin, growth hormone, **all of the above
Increased aggressive and assertive behavior is associated with an increase in which of these hormones?
sex hormones
Excess secretion of growth hormone during early development will cause
gigantism
The hormone that dominates during the alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome is
epinephrine
During the alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome there is
mobilization of energy reserves
If stress lasts longer than a few hours, an individual will enter the __________ phase of the general adaptation syndrome.
resistance
Hormones that dominate during the resistance phase of the general adaptation syndrome are the
glucocorticoids
During the resistance phase of the general adaptation syndrome
lipid reserves are mobilized
The exhaustion phase of the general adaptation syndrome is characterized by
decreased resistance to disease and infection
Cholecalciferol is synthesized within the
epidermis of the integumentary system
Gap junctions
coordinate ciliary movement among epithelial cells, coordinate the contractions of cardiac muscle cells, facilitate the propagation of action potentials from one cell to the next at electrical synapses, **all of the above
__________ are chemical messengers that are released in one tissue and transported in the bloodstream to alter the activities of the specific cells in other tissues.
Hormones
Inadequate iodine in the diet may lead to
hypothyroidism, cretinism, goiter, high blood levels of TSH, **all of the above
Cells can respond to ___________ hormones at the same time.
3 or less
Norepinephrine and epinephrine are considered to be _________ when released into the bloodstream, but _________ when released at synapses.
hormones; neurotransmitters
The kidneys secrete
renin, erythropoietin, calcitrol
The heart is know to secrete all of the following hormones, except
thymosin and thyroxine
Thyroxine and calcitonin are secreted by the
thyroid gland
Melatonin is produced by the
pineal gland
A kinase is an enzyme that performs
phosphorylation
An activated G protein can trigger
the production of diacyglycerol, the opening of calcium ion channels in the membrane, the release of calcium ions from intracellular stores, a fall in cAMP levels
Calcium ions serve as messengers, often in combination with the intracellular protein
calmodulin
Hormones can operate on the ________ level of organization
cellular, tissue, organ, organismic
The functional organization of the nervous system parallels that of the ________ system in many ways.
endocrine
The hypothalamus acts as both a neural and a(n) __________ organ.
endocrine
A simple endocrine reflex involves ________ hormone(s).
one
The action of thyroid hormone on a target cell involves all of these steps except one. Identify the incorrect step.
binding to a hormone recptor in the plasma membrane
PRL is to ________ as ACTH is to ________.
prolactin; corticotropin
If a diabetic patient received too much insulin, the low blood sugar could be corrected by injecting
glucagon
Where does the chemical reaction between thyroglbulin and iodine take place?
in the lumen of the thyroid follicle
Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) is secreted by the human pars intermedia
during pregnancy, in very young children, during fetal development, in some disease processes
The two lobes of the pituatary gland together produce how many hormones?
9
The hormone that may be slowly administered by an intravenous drip to accelerate labor and deliver is
oxytocin
TSH plays a key role in the _________ of thyroid hormones.
synthesis and release
The control of calcitonin excretion is an example of direct _________ regulation.
endocrine
Parathyroid hormone does all of the following, except that it doesn't
build up bone
Alpha cells are to ________ as beta cells are to _________.
glucagon; insulin
Which of the following substances activates kinases and thus acts as a second messenger?
cyclic AMP
The primary target of insulin is
skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle; adipocytes; liver cells
In general, the effects of natriuretic peptides _______ those of of angostensin II.
oppose
After brain surgery a person receiveing postoperative care in an intensive care unit began to pass large volumes of very dilute urine. The ICU nurse administered a medicine that mimics one of the following hormones.
ADH
Cushing disease results from an excess of
glucocorticoids
The term used to describe excess production of urine is
polyuria
Which of the following hormones is water soluble and therefor binds to extracellular receptors?
insulin and epinephrine
The primary function of ADH is to
decrese the amount of water lost at the kidneys
Reduction of fluid losses at the kidneys due to the retention of Na+ is the action of
aldosterone
The suprarenal medulla produces the hormones
epinephrine and norepinephrine
The adenyl cyclase activity of liver cells were missing, which of these hormones could no longer stimulate release of glucose?
epinephrine
Increased activity of phosphodiesterase in a target cell would decrease its level of
cAMP
Destruction of the supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus would have which result?
loss of ADH secretion
All target cells
have hormone receptors and respond to chemical signals
In persons with untreated diabetes mellitus,
blood glucose levels are very high, excessive thirst is shown, glucose is present in the urine in large amounts, a large excretion of urine occurs
If the median imminence of the hypothalamus is destroyed, the hypothalamus would no longer be able to control the secretion of which of the following hormones?
TSH, ACTH, and PRL
The hypophyseal portal system
has two capillary plexuses connected by short veins, carries neurosecretions to the anterior lobe of the pituitary, carries ADH and oxytocin
Damage to cells of the zona fasciculata of the suprarenal cortex would result in
decreased ability to convert amino acids to glucose
A rise in cortisol would cause an increase in each of the following except
ACTH levels
A rise in angiostensin II levels would result in all of the following except
increased urine production.
Decreased blood flow to the kidneys would lead to which of the following?
increased blood levels of renin, elevated blood levels of angiostensin, increased blood levels of erythropoietin
If a patient is administered a powerful glucocorticoid to suppress the immune system, what is unintended effects might this have on blood chemistry?
increase of insulin, increase of blood glucose
Which of the following might occur in an overdose of insulin?
low blood pressure
Which of these statments about melatonin is false?
exposure to light stimulates production
The condition known as season affective disorder may be caused by
increased levels of melatonin
Shelly has a hormone-secreting tumor of the suprarenal gland. The tumor is causing her to have a deep voice, to grow extensive body hair, and to stop menstruating. This tumor probably involves cells of the
zona reticularis
Which of the following hormones may lead to acromegaly if hypersecreted after closure of the epiphyseal plate?
Growth Hormone
Which of the following hormones increases and prolongs effects of the sympathetic nervous system?
epinephrine
Which of the following organs contains target cells for oxytocin?
prostate, ductus deferens, mammary glands, uterus
Before the discovery of these glands, thyroid surgery often led to a rapid drop in blood calcium levels, which triggered muscle contractions and cardiac arythmias. What glands are these and which hormone is lacking?
parathyroid glands and parathyroid hormone
Which of the following is not an action of TSH?
inhibits T3 and T4 secretion
Which of the following cooperate to prepare the mammary glands for milk secretion?
prolactin, estrogens, progesterone, placental hormones