All of the following are true of the nervous system, except that it does not
function independently of the endocrine system`
All of the following are true of steroid hormones except that they
are produced by reproductive glands
Extracellular membrane receptors are used by which of the following types of hormones?
catecholamines, peptide hormones, eicosanoids
When a catecholamine or peptide hormone binds receptors on the surface of a cell, the
second messenger appears in the cytoplasm
Hormones can be divided into different groups based on their chemistry. These categories include
peptides, steroids, eicosanoids, amino acid derivatives
Hormonal actions on cells include those that affect
quantities of enzymes, activities of enzymes, synthesis of enzymes, gating of ion channels
The link between a first messenger and a second messenger in a cell that responds to peptide hormones is usually
a G protein
After a steroid hormone binds to its receptor to form an active complex
gene transcription is initiated
Hormone release may be controlled by which of the following factors?
blood level of an ion-like potassium, blood level of glucose, blood level of a hormone, nervous stimuli
Regulatory factors that control secretion of adenohypophyseal hormones are release by neurons at the __________ of the hypothalamus.
The hypothalamus controls secretion by the adenohypophysis by
secreting releasing and inhibiting factors into a tiny portal system
Neurons of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus manufacture
ADH and oxytocin
Each of the following hormones is produced by the pars distalis of the adenohypophysis, except
The hormone oxytocin
Promotes uterine contractions, is responsible for milk expression from mammary glands, triggers prostate gland contraction
The pituitary hormone that controls the release of glucocorticoids from the suprarenal cortex is
The pituitary hormone that promotes egg development in ovaries and sperm development in testes is
The pituitary hormone that promotes ovarian secretion of progesterone and testicular secretion of testosterone is
The pituitary gland that stimulates cell growth and replication by accelerating protein synthesis is
Which of the following is a known effect of thyroid hormone on peripheral tissues?
increased oxygen consumption, increased heart rate, increased sensitivity to adrenergic stimulation, increased body temperature
The hormone that plays a pivotal role in setting the metabolic rate and thus impacting body temperature is
Each of the following is true of the pineal gland, except that it
is a component of the hypothalamus
Proper growth requires which of these hormones?
thyroid hormone, calcitrol, insulin, growth hormone, **all of the above
Increased aggressive and assertive behavior is associated with an increase in which of these hormones?
If stress lasts longer than a few hours, an individual will enter the __________ phase of the general adaptation syndrome.
Hormones that dominate during the resistance phase of the general adaptation syndrome are the
The exhaustion phase of the general adaptation syndrome is characterized by
decreased resistance to disease and infection
coordinate ciliary movement among epithelial cells, coordinate the contractions of cardiac muscle cells, facilitate the propagation of action potentials from one cell to the next at electrical synapses, **all of the above
__________ are chemical messengers that are released in one tissue and transported in the bloodstream to alter the activities of the specific cells in other tissues.
Inadequate iodine in the diet may lead to
hypothyroidism, cretinism, goiter, high blood levels of TSH, **all of the above
Norepinephrine and epinephrine are considered to be _________ when released into the bloodstream, but _________ when released at synapses.
An activated G protein can trigger
the production of diacyglycerol, the opening of calcium ion channels in the membrane, the release of calcium ions from intracellular stores, a fall in cAMP levels
The functional organization of the nervous system parallels that of the ________ system in many ways.
The action of thyroid hormone on a target cell involves all of these steps except one. Identify the incorrect step.
binding to a hormone recptor in the plasma membrane
If a diabetic patient received too much insulin, the low blood sugar could be corrected by injecting
Where does the chemical reaction between thyroglbulin and iodine take place?
in the lumen of the thyroid follicle
Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) is secreted by the human pars intermedia
during pregnancy, in very young children, during fetal development, in some disease processes
The hormone that may be slowly administered by an intravenous drip to accelerate labor and deliver is
After brain surgery a person receiveing postoperative care in an intensive care unit began to pass large volumes of very dilute urine. The ICU nurse administered a medicine that mimics one of the following hormones.
Which of the following hormones is water soluble and therefor binds to extracellular receptors?
insulin and epinephrine
The adenyl cyclase activity of liver cells were missing, which of these hormones could no longer stimulate release of glucose?
Destruction of the supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus would have which result?
loss of ADH secretion
In persons with untreated diabetes mellitus,
blood glucose levels are very high, excessive thirst is shown, glucose is present in the urine in large amounts, a large excretion of urine occurs
If the median imminence of the hypothalamus is destroyed, the hypothalamus would no longer be able to control the secretion of which of the following hormones?
TSH, ACTH, and PRL
The hypophyseal portal system
has two capillary plexuses connected by short veins, carries neurosecretions to the anterior lobe of the pituitary, carries ADH and oxytocin
Damage to cells of the zona fasciculata of the suprarenal cortex would result in
decreased ability to convert amino acids to glucose
A rise in angiostensin II levels would result in all of the following except
increased urine production.
Decreased blood flow to the kidneys would lead to which of the following?
increased blood levels of renin, elevated blood levels of angiostensin, increased blood levels of erythropoietin
If a patient is administered a powerful glucocorticoid to suppress the immune system, what is unintended effects might this have on blood chemistry?
increase of insulin, increase of blood glucose
Shelly has a hormone-secreting tumor of the suprarenal gland. The tumor is causing her to have a deep voice, to grow extensive body hair, and to stop menstruating. This tumor probably involves cells of the
Which of the following hormones may lead to acromegaly if hypersecreted after closure of the epiphyseal plate?
Which of the following hormones increases and prolongs effects of the sympathetic nervous system?
Which of the following organs contains target cells for oxytocin?
prostate, ductus deferens, mammary glands, uterus
Before the discovery of these glands, thyroid surgery often led to a rapid drop in blood calcium levels, which triggered muscle contractions and cardiac arythmias. What glands are these and which hormone is lacking?
parathyroid glands and parathyroid hormone