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Axial skeleton

80 bones, supports and protects, muscle attachment for: movement of head/neck/trunk, respiration, stabilize and position the appendicular skeleton

Cranial Bones

8 bones

Facial bones

14 bones of the skull which protect and support the eyes, ears, nose and mouth

Thoracic cage

consists of thoracic vertebrae, the ribs and the sternum; protects the heart, lungs, thymus and other structures within the cavity; serves as an attachment site for muscles involved in respiration, positioning vertebral column, movements of the pectoral girdle and upper limb


the bony structure units of the spinal column (26)


lower posterior region of the head/skull

occipital condyles

projections of the occipital bone that articulate with lateral masses of the first cervical vertebra

foramen magnum

large opening in occipital bone that allows spinal cord to attach to brain

occipital protuberance

a bump that extends out from the occipital bone


the two bones forming the sidewalls and roof of the cranium, lat. superior skull


superior anterior skull, forms roof of orbits

lacrimal fossa

fossa of the frontal bone that contains the lacrimal gland, located just inside the lateral portion of the supraorbital ridge.


inferior lateral skull (temples)

external acoustic canal

ear hole

mastoid process

part of the temporal bone that attaches to some of the muscles of the neck

zygomatic process

part of the temporal bone that forms part of the posterior cheekbone

styloid process

sharp (needle-like) projection from the bottom of the temporal bone


suture that separates occipital from parietal


Suture across top front, between frontal and parietal


suture b/t parietal bones


suture that separates parietal and temporal


butterfly-shaped bone at the base of the skull, articulates with the 7 other cranial bones, most central cranial bone, post. walls of orbits and ant. floor of cranium

sella turcica

bony process on sup. center of sphenoid bone

hypophyseal fossa

"seat of the saddle" part of the sella turcica, holds the Pituitary gland

lesser wings

sphenoid; bat-shaped portions of the spheniod anterior to the sella turcica

greater wings

portions of the sphenoid seen exteriorly anterior to the temporal and forming a part of the eye orbits

optic canals

openings in the bases of the lesser wings through which the optic nerves enter the orbits to serve the eyes


anterior to sphenoid, forms medial wall of orbits, roof of nasal cavity + part of nasal septum

cribriform plate

part of the ethmoid bone that forms the roof of the nasal cavity found in the anterior floor of the cranium

olfactory foramina

openings for olfactory nerves

perpendicular plate

forms the superior part of the nasal septum

superior nasal conchae

scroll shaped projections on the lateral walls of the nasal cavity; they increase vascular & mucus membrane surface area in the nasal cavities, which aids in the snese of smell, and warm, moisten and filter incoming air

middle nasal conchae

scroll-like projection on each lateral wall of nasal cavity


largest facial bones, form upper jaw/ supports upper teeth, forms inferior orbits + hard palate

infraorbital foramen

sensory nerve to face

palatine process

forms the anterior portion of the hard palate (roof) of the mouth also forms parts of the nasal cavity and eye orbits


posterior hard palate


forms the inferior portion of the nasal septum, articulates w/ perpendicular palate

zygomatic bone

cheek bone, lateral walls of orbits

temporal process

Articulates with zygomatic process of the temporal bone to form the zygomatic arch


form the bridge of the nose, attachment site for cartilage of nose


smallest facial bones, form medial walls of orbits

lacrimal sulcus

A groove along the anterior lateral surface of the lacrimal bone


lower jaw bone

mandible body

Main part of the jaw bone, horizontal part, holds lower teeth

mandible ramus

verticle part of jaw.

condylar process

the posterior upward projection of the ramus that fits into the temporomandibular joint, which is the hinge of the mandible

coronoid process

the anterior, non-articulating process of the ramus of the mandible which serves as the insertion for the temporalis muscle.

paranasal sinuses

air cavities within the cranial bones that open into the nasal cavities, lighten skull bones, acts as resonating chambers for voice, produce mucus, wash debris into nasal cavity, prevent debris from entering nasal tract

Maxillary, Frontal, Sphenoid, Ethmoidal

4 types of paranasal sinuses

Vertebral Column

26 bones, support head, limbs and trunk, support upper organs, transfers body weight to lower limbs, protects spinal cord


'neck', 7 vertebrae, C1-C7, supports skull, most flexible region, smallest lightest vertebrae,large vertebral foramen, all have 2 transverse foramen, to support artery


superior back, 12 vertebrae, T1-T12, supports thoracic cage, very little flexibility, larger, thicker bodies, smaller vertebral foramen, inferiorly angled spinous processes, each vertebrae articulates w/ a pair of ribs


inferior back, 5 vertebrae, L1-L5, supports abdominal regions, more flexible than thoracic spine, large oval bodies, small triangular vertebral foramen,very large, short spinous processes


base of spine, 5 fused vertebrae, S1-S5, transfers upper body weight to lower limbs


tail bone, 3-5 fused vertebrae, Co1-Co3-5)

Primary Curves

c curve of spine, during infancy

secondary curves

cervical and lumbar curves after several months, allows for upright posture and even distribution of weight

lordotic curve

spine arches anteriorly, forms cervical and lumbar curves

kyphotic curve

spine arches posteriorly, forms thoracic and sacral spinal curves


part of vertebrae that is the main structure and most anterior part

vertebral arch

posterior part of vertebrae

vertebral foramen

surrounds the spinal cord, formed by body and vertebral arch

spinous process

posterior projection of vert. arch, site of muscle attachment

transverse process

lat. projection of vert. arch,site of muscle attachment

articular facets

articulations b/t vertebrae


no body or spinous process, extra large vertebral foramen (for brain stem), articulates w/ skull at the occipital condyles, forming the atlantoccipital joint , allows for 'yes'


contains dens process- vertical projection of the body, provides pivot for rotation of atlas, articulates w. atlas forming atlanaxial joint, allows for 'no'

ligamentum nuchae

long post. ligament, attaches all spinous process to externa occipital protuberance, provides large area for muscle attachment

intervertebral foramen

openings b/t adjoining vertebrae, allow spinal nerves to exit spinal cavity

intervertebral disc

fibrocartilage pads located b/t discs, cushion vertebrae +absorb shock

annulus fibrosis

outer layer of fribrocartilage of disc

nucleus pulposis

gelatinous inner core of disc

herniated disc

protrusion of a degenerated or fragmented intervertebral disk so that the nucleus pulposus protrudes, causing compression on the nerve root


triang. wedge, 5 vertebrae fused by 25-30 years old, attaches axial skeleton to appendicular skeleton


sup. edge of sacrum


inferior edge of sacrum

median sacral crest

ridge of the fused spinous processes of the sacral vertebrae

sacral canal

continuation of vertebral canal

sacral foramina

Allow the passage of sacral spinal nerves.

articular surface

lateral edge, articulates with pelvis, forms sacroilac joint


most inferior region of vertebral column, attachment site of muscle controlling anus

thoracic cage

consists of thoracic vertebrae, the ribs and the sternum; protects the heart, lungs, thymus and other structures within the cavity; serves as an attachment site for muscles involved in respiration, positioning vertebral column, movements of the pectoral girdle and upper limb


maniubrium (upper part), body, and xhypoid process (lower)+ all parts of the ____.


attachment site for many muscles

costal cartilages

cartilage connecting ribs to sternum

true ribs

direct connection to sternum (1-7)

false ribs

(8-12), indirectly connected to sternum,

floating ribs

11-12, no connection to sternum

The Integument

- 1st line of defense
- largest system of the body

2 Main Parts of Integument

- cutaneous membrane (skin)
- accessory structures

Cutaneous Membrane

- epidermis: superficial; epithelial tissues
- dermis: middle; connective tissue; dense irregular

Plus: subcutaneous: deep; superficial fascia; connective tissues

Accessory Structures

-originate in dermis and extend through the epidermis to the skin surface

ie. hair, nails, multicellular exocrine glands; blood vessels, sensory receptors for pain/temp/pressure

Functions of the Skin

Protection: underlying tissues and organs
Excretion: salts, waters, and organic wastes
Regulation: insulation and evaporation
Storage: energy; lipids within adipose
Sensation: touch, pressure, pain, temperature
Synthesizes: vitamin D

Characteristics of Epidermis

- stratified squamous epithelium
- avascular
- protects underlying tissue


- most abundant cells in the epidermis
- produce and contain large amounts of keratin
- thick, wavy, fibrous protein

Thin Skin

covers most of body, has 4 layers of keratinocytes

Layers of Epidermis

Deep to Superficial:
Stratum Germanitivum
Stratum Spinosum
Stratum Granulosum
Stratum Lucidum
Stratum Corneum

Stratum Germinativum

- lot of basal cells
- attached to basal lamina by desmosomes
- forms a strong bond between epidermis and dermis
- epidermal ridges: form fingerpoints

Merkel Cells

- cells of stratum germinativum
- found in hairless skin
- respond to touch


- cells of stratum germinativum
- contain the pigment melanin
- scattered throughout germinativum

Basal Cells

- stem cells
-cells of stratum germinativum

Stratum Spinosum

- "spiny layer"
- keratinocytes continue to divide, increasing thickness of epithelium
- 8-10 layers of keratinocytes
- cells shrink until their cytoskeletons stick out (spiny)

Langerhans Cells

- in stratum spinosum
- defend against microorganisms and cancer cells

Stratum Granulosum

- "grainy layer"
- keratinocytes stop dividing and start producing:
~ keratin: a tough, waxy, fibrous protein
~ cells fill with keratin, dehydrate, and begin to die

Stratum Lucidum

- "clear layer"
- found only in thick skin
- covers stratum granulosum
- keratinocytes are: dead, flat, densely packed with keratin, cells have become keratinized


- formation of a layer of dead, protective cells filled with keratin
- occurs on all exposed skin surfaces except the eyes

Stratum Corneum

- "horn layer"
- exposed surface of skin
- 15 to 30 layers of keratinized cells
- water resistant
- shed and replaced every 2 weeks

Skin Life Cycle

- it takes 15 to 30 days for a cell to move from
- stratum germinativum to stratum corneum

Skin Color

Depends on:
1. the pigments carotene and melanin
2. blood circulation (red cells)
3. illness


- orange-yellow pigment
- found in orange vegetables (squash, carrots)
- accumulates in keratinocytes and adipocytes
- can be converted to vitamin A


- yellow-brown pigment
- produced by melanocytes in stratum germinativum
- stored in transport vesicles: melanosomes
- then transferred to keratinocytes


1. protects skin from sun damage
- excessive UV radiation causes:
~ DNA mutations -> Cancer
~ Fibroblast impairment -> wrinkles
- UV radiation activates melanocytes

Blood Flow

- highly oxegenated blood i bright red
- a drop in blood flow creates pale skin


- a severe reduction in blood flow of oxygenation
- bluish skin tint


- build up of bile
- produced by liver
- yellow color of skin and eyes


- leukoderma
- loss of melanocytes
- loss of pigment


- cancer of the melanocytes in the germinativum
- least common type of cancer
- most dangerous type: aggressive metastasis (spreads rapidly)
- often starts out as a mole

Basel Cell Carcinoma

- cancer of the keratinocytes in the germinativum
- most common cancer type
- safe: non- metastasizing


- deep to epidermis and superficial to the subcutaneous layer
- vascular and innervated
- anchors accessory structures of the epidermis: hair follicles and glands
- 2 layers: papillary layer (superficial) + reticular layer (deep)

Papillary Layer

- areolar tissues
- small capillaries: supply the germinativum
- sensory receptors
- lymph vessels

Dermal Papillae

- increase surface area between the epidermis and dermis
- strengthens attachment
- increases diffusion of germinativum

Reticular Layer

- deep layer of dermis
- dense irregular connective tissue
- supports: hair, glands, nerves, vessels, and muscle


strong- due to collagen fibers
elastic- due to elastic fibers

Lines of Cleavage

- collagen and elastic fibers in the dermis
- are arranged in parallel bundles
- resist force in a specific direction


- inflammation of the papillary layer
- causes:
~ chemical irritation: poison ivy, lotions
~ mechanical irritation: clothing, jewerly
~ infection: virus, bacteria
- itching or pain

Subcutaneous Layer

- located deep to the dermis and superficial to muscle and bone
- also called: hypodermis or superficial fascia
- composed of areolar and adipose connective tissues
- stabilizes the skin to deeper tissues
- allows skeletal muscle to move independently from the skin
- arteries and veins: supply dermal papillary layer
- nerves control: blood flow, gland secretion, sensory receptors

Glands of Accessory Structures

Sebaceous Gland (oil)- sebum
Sudorifirous Gland- sweat


- body is covered with except: palms, soles, lips, and portions of external genitalia
- functions: protects and insulates, guards openings against insects and dust
- sensitive to very light touch

Hair Follicle

- located deep in dermis
- produces nonliving hairs
- wrapped in a sheath of dense irregular CT
- base is surrounded by sensory nerves: root hair plexus

Hair Root

- lower part of the hair
- attached to the dermis

Hair Shaft

- protects upper part of hair
- NOT attached to dermis

Arrector Pili

- involuntary smooth muscle
- causes hair to stand up
- produces "goose bumps"
- contracts sebaceous gland

Sebaceous Gland

- lubricates and conditions hair and corneum
- prevents against bacterial infection

Hair Color

- produced by melanocytes
- determined by genes

Nail Body

- visible portion of the nail
- covers the nail bed: epithelium
- dead, tightly compressed keratin filled cells


Pale crescent at the base of the nail

Free Edge

extends over the hyponychium (corneum)
Epithelial Cells

Nail Root

germinative portion


the cuticle

Functions of Nail

- protects fingertips from injury
- used as tools

Sebaceous Gland

(oil glands)
- holocrine glands
- secrete sebum:
~ oily substance composed of lipids
~ lubricates epidermis and hair
~ inhibits bacterial growth

2 Types of Sebaceous Glands

1. sebaceous glands: associated with hair follicles
2. sebaceous follicles: discharge directly onto skin surface (epithelial surface)
ie. face, back, chest, nipples, male genitalia

Sudorifirous Gland

(sweat glands)
2 Types:
1. merocrine glands: (also eccrine glands) widely distributed over body surface, more on palms and plantar surfaces, secrete directly onto cutaneous surface
2. apocrine glands: (merocrine secretions) associated with hair follicles, found in axillary and pubic regions, produce sticky, cloudy secretions, odoriferous

Merocrine Sweat

1. cools skin: skin plays a major role in thermoregulation: the removal of heat from dermal circulation b the evaporation of warmed sweat (perspiration)
2. excretes excess water and electrolytes
3. flushes microorganisms and harmful chemicals from skin surface
4. contains antibacterial proteins

Mammary Glands

- produce milk
- apocrine secretions

Ceruminous Glands

- modified sudorifirous glands
- produce cerumen- earwax
- protect the eardrum from debris and infection

Step 1

- bleeding occurs
- mast cells trigger an inflammatory response

Step 2

- "the inflammatory response"
- germinative cells migrate around the wound
- macrophages clean the area
- fibroblasts and endothelial cells move in producing granulation tissue
- a scab (blood clot) stabilizes and protects the area
- fibrin: protein fibers

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