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140 terms

Ch. 2 - Medical Terminology 1313

Chapter 2 - Body Structure, Color, and Oncology Book: Exploring Medical Language 8th Edition (ISBN: 9780323073080)
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Space inside the skull (cranium) containing the brain
Cranial cavity
Space inside the spinal column containing the spinal cord
Spinal cavity
Space containing the heart, aorta, lungs, esophagus, trachea, and bronchi
Thoracic, or chest, cavity
Space containing the stomach, intestines, kidneys, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen, and ureters
Abdominal cavity
Space containing the urinary bladder, certain reproductive organs, parts of the small and large intestine, and the rectum
Pelvic cavity
Both the pelvic and abdominal cavities
Abdominopelvic cavity
Regions within the chromosomes
Genes
A genetic material that regulates the activities of the cell
DNA
Basic unit of all living things
Cell
Gel-like fluid inside the cell
Cytoplasm
Contains chromosomes
Nucleus
Contains genes
Chromosomes
aden/o
Gland
cyt/o
Cell
epitheli/o
Epithilium
fibr/o
Fiber
hist/o
Tissue
kary/o
Nucleus
lip/o
Fat
my/o
Muscle
neur/o
Nerve
organ/o
Organ
sarc/o
Flesh, connective tissue
system/o
System
viscer/o
Internal organs
cancer/o, carcin/o
Cancer (a disease characterized by the unregulated, abnormal growth of new cells)
eti/o
Cause (of disease)
gno/o
Knowledge
iatr/o
Physician, medicine (also means treatment)
lei/o
Smooth
onc/o
Tumor, mass
path/o
Disease
rhabd/o
Rod-shaped, striated
somat/o
Body
chlor/o
Green
chrom/o
Color
cyan/o
Blue
erythr/o
Red
leuk/o
White
melan/o
Black
xanth/o
Yellow
dia-
Through, complete
dys-
Painful, abnormal, difficult, labored
hyper-
Above, excessive
hypo-
Below, incomplete, deficient
meta-
After, beyond, change
neo-
New
pro-
Before
-al, -ic, -ous
Pertaining to
-cyte
Cell
-gen
Substance or agent that produces or causes
-genic
Producing, originating, causing
-logist
One who studies and treats (specialist, physician)
-logy
Study of
-oid
Resembling
-oma
Tumor, swelling
-osis
Abnormal condition (means increase when used with blood cell word roots)
-pathy
Disease
-plasia
Condition of formation, development, growth
-plasm
Growth, substance, formation
-sarcoma
Malignant tumor
-sis
State of
-stasis
Control, stop, standing
The study of tumors
Oncology
Define: Adenocarcinoma
Cancerous tumor of glandular tissue
Define: Adenoma
Tumor composed of glandular tissue (benign)
Define: Carcinoma (CA)
Cancerous tumor (malignant)
Define: Chloroma
Tumor of green color (malignant, arising from myeloid tissue)
Define: Epithelioma
Tumor composed of epithelium (may be benign or malignant)
Define: Fibroma
Tumor composed of fiber (fibrous tissue)(benign)
Define: Fibrosarcoma
Malignant tumor composed of fiber (fibrous tissue)
Define: Leiomyoma
Tumor composed of smooth muscle (benign)
Define: Leiomyosarcoma
Malignant tumor of smooth muscle
Define: Lipoma
Tumor composed of fat (benign tumor)
Define: Liposarcoma
Malignant tumor of fat
Define: Melanocarcinoma
Cancerous black tumor (malignant)
Define: Melanoma
Black tumor (primarily of the skin)
Define: Myoma
Tumor composed of muscle (benign)
Define: Neoplasm
New growth (of abnormal tissue or tumor)
Define: Neuroma
Tumor composed of nerve (benign)
Define: Rhabdomyoma
Tumor composed of striated muscle (benign)
Define: Rhabdomyosarcoma
Malignant tumor of striated muscle
Define: Sarcoma
Tumor of connective tissue (such as bone or cartilage)(highly malignant)
Define: Cytogenic
Producing cells
Define: Cytoid
Resembling a cell
Define: Cytology
Study of cells
Define: Cytoplasm
Cell substance
Define: Dysplasia
Abnormal development
Define: Epithelial
Pertaining to epithelium
Define: Erythrocyte (RBC)
Red (blood) cell
Define: Erythrocytosis
Increase in the number of red (blood) cells
Define: Histology
Study of tissue
Define: Hyperplasia
Excessive development (number of cells)
Define: Hypoplasia
Incomplete development (of an organ or tissue)
Define: Karyocyte
Cell with a nucleus
Define: Karyoplasm
Substance of a nucleus
Define: Leukocyte (WBC)
White (blood) cell
Define: Leukocytosis
Increase in the number of white (blood) cells
Define: Lipoid
Resembling fat
Define: Myopathy
Disease of the muscle
Define: Neuroid
Resembling a nerve
Define: Somatic
Pertaining to the body
Define: Somatogenic
Originating in the body (organic as opposed to psychologic)
Define: Somatopathy
Disease of the body
Define: Somatoplasm
Body substance
Define: Systemic
Pertaining to a (body) system (or the body as a whole)
Define: Visceral
Pertaining to the internal organs
Define: Cancerous
Pertaining to cancer
Define: Carcinogen
Substance that causes cancer
Define: Cyanosis
Abnormal condition of blue (bluish discoloration of the skin caused by inadequate supply of oxygen in the blood
Define: Diagnosis
State of complete knowledge (identifying a disease)
Define: Etiology
Study of causes (of diseases)
Define: Iatrogenic
Produced by a physician (the unexpected results from a treatment prescribed by a physician)
Define: Iatrology
Study of medicine
Define: Metastasis (mets)
Beyond control (spread of disease from one organ to another, as in the transfer of malignant tumors)
Define: Neopathy
New disease
Define: Oncogenic
Causing tumors
Define: Oncologist
A physician who studies and treats tumors
Define: Oncology
Study of tumors (a branch of medicine concerned with the study of malignant tumors)
Define: Organic
Pertaining to an organ
Define: Organoid
Resembling an organ
Define: Pathogenic
Producing disease
Define: Pathologist
A physician who studies diseases (examines biopsies and performs autopsies to determine the cause of disease or death)
Define: Pathology
Study of disease (a branch of medicine dealing with the study of the causes of disease and death)
Define: Prognosis (Px)
State of before knowledge (prediction of the outcome of disease)
Define: Xanthochromic
Pertaining to yellow color
Define: Xanthosis
Abnormal condition of yellow (discoloration)
Define: Benign (Not built from word parts)
Not malignant, nonrecurrent, favorable for recovery
Define: Carcinoma in situ (Not built from word parts)
Cancer in the early stage before invading surrounding tissue
Define: Chemotherapy (chemo)
Treatment of cancer wth drugs
Define: Encapsulated (Not built from word parts)
Enclosed in a capsule, as with benign tumors
Define: Exacerbation
Increase in the severity of a disease or its symptoms
Define: Idiopathic (Not built from word parts)
Pertaining to disease of unknown origin
Define: Inflammation
Response to injury or destruction of tissue characterized by redness, swelling, heat, and pain
Define: In vitro (Not built from word parts)
Within a glass, observable within a test tube
Define: In vivo (Not built from word parts)
Within the living body
Define: Malignant (Not built from word parts)
Tending to become progressively worse and to cause death, as in cancer
Define: Radiation therapy (XRT)
Treatment of cancer with a radioactive substance, x-ray, or radiation (also called radiation oncology and radiotherapy)
Define: Remission (Not built from word parts)
Improvement or absence of signs of disease
Define both words: Sign and Symptom
Sign - Objective information that is detected on physical examination such as observation that the patient has cyanosis of the nail beds.
Symptom - Subjective information; what patients say about themselves such as stating the feeling of pain in their chest while walking.