thin and broad sternum, scapula, cranium provides protective shield provides a large area for muscle attachment
Long and narrow curved to distribute weight and resist bending and twisting arms hands fingers and legs
small and boxy square life; resists high pressure
complex shapes vetebral, face, pelvis
small bones embedded in tendons and over joints patella are the knee caps
small bones embedded between the flat bones of the skull
diaphysis, epiphysis, metaphysis
Parts of a Long Bone
long, center shaft compact bone made of dense outer layer marrow cavity is made of hollow central space contains yellow bone marrow
expanded ends spongy bone, a network of struts and plates called trabeculae cortex made of thin outer layer of compact bone contains red bone marrow
narrow region between diaphysis and epiphysis
soft tissues and organs one of the functions of one
function of bone that affects the brain (skull--> cranial cavity) spinal cord (spinal column --> spinal cavity) lungs and heart (rib cage --> thoracic cavity) reproductive organs (pelvis --> pelvic cavity)
bones are levers pulled by muscles function of bone
function of bone calcium, phosphate (required for certain processes)
function of bone adipocytes found in yellow bone marroe store fat to protect from starvation
blood cell production
hemopoiesis function of bone that occurs in red bone marrow
forms into circular layers called lamellae (bone cells, collagen fibers, and calcium phosphate) remodels to patterns of activity
type of bone cell that is the stem cell. differentiates into osteoblasts maintains osteoblast population located in periosteum and endosteum
the inner cellular layer
lining of marrow cavity
produces new bone matrix through osteogenesis makes collagen fibers and ground substances regulates the deposition of calcium salts in the matrix
removes and recycles bone matrix through process of osteolysis secretes acids and enzymes that dissolve the matrix and releases the stored minerals in the blood stream originates from stem cells that create macrophages largest of the bone cells
mature bone cells they are osteoblasts that have become encased in bone breakdown and buildup the local matrix
concentric layers of matrix that is arranged in cylinders
functional unit of compact bone a cylinder of lamellae aligned parallel to surface of the bone provides great compressive strength
center hole contains blood vessels that supply the cells of the osteon
perpendicular canal that contains blood vessels that supply deeper osteons and marrow cavity
small chambers between lamellae that contains osteons
narrow passageway in the lamellaw that connects adjacent lacunae allows osteocytes to form gap junctions allows for passage of nutrients and hormones
located in epiphysis of long bone is not organized in osteons
struts and plates of lamellae forms an open network of light weight bone
2 layers of membrane covering the bone composed of dense irregular conenctive tissue outer layer the inside is made of epithelial
isolates and protects the bone contains cells active in bone growth and repair collagen fibers ancher other tissue to bone blood vessels, tendons, sheaths, nerves, ligaments, capsules
membrane lining on compact and spongy bone only one layer lines marrow cavity and covers trabeculae cells are active in bone growth and repair just like periosteum
process of replacing tissue with bone
deposition of calcium salts occurs 3 weeks after fertilization until age 25
hyaline cartilage superficial bone formation primary ossification center marrow cavity formation secondary ossification center bone formation completes
chondrocytes increase in size matrix reduces to thin struts that calcify chondrocytes die and disintegrate
superficial bone formation
blood vessels grow into perichondrium osteoblasts form and produce thin layer of bone around shafts of the cartilage perichondrium becomes periosteum
primary ossification center
blood vessels grow into center of cartilage osteoblasts form and produce spongy bone spongy bone spreads towards both epiphyses
marrow cavity formation
osteoclasts break down spongy bone to create marrow cavity diaphysis becomes wider and longer
secondary ossification center
blood vessels grow into the epiphysis osteoclasrs form and spongy bone is produced
bone formation completes
ossification completed a thin layer of articular cartilage remains
conversion of fibrous connective tissue to bone occupy in the deep dermal layers produces flat bones any soft tissue can become bone if abnormally stretched
a homeostatic mechanism of bone the recycling and renewing of bone matrix the continuous breaking down and building up of bone ongoing osteoclast and osteoblast activity regulate blood calcium levels to ensure proper function of muscles and nerves adapt bones to the mechanical stresses of muscles repair and replace damaged or diseased bone
mechanical stress caused by muscles pulling on bone body weight
mechanical stress causes calcium mineral crystals to generate eletrical currents. electrical currents attract and stimulate osteoblast activity. lack of excercise promotes osteoclast activity.
regulate bone growth and remodeling
human growth hormone
hormone that is secreted by pituitary and functions in growth thoughout lifetime
secreted by ovaries and testes; horomone that controls growth and puberty and beyond
secreted by kidneys hormone that promotes intestinal calcium absorption
secreted by parathyroid gland increases blood calcium levels by increasing osteoclast activity
secreted by thyroid gland decreases blood calcium levels by decreasing osteoclast activity
reduces hgh and sex hormones begins at age 30 slow osteoblast activity osteoclast activity remains constant
inadequate ossification affects epiphysis, vertebrae, and mandible
a condition of severe bone loss affects females more than men because of estrogen
types of fractureopen
simple: internal; no projection of bone through skin
compound; bone projects through skin dangerous possible blood loss and infection
fracture hematoma formation callus formation spongy bone formation remodeling
fracture hematoma formation
blood clot many blood vessels broken; causes extensive bleeding lack of blood leads to much bone death
callus formation; internal and external
forms in the marrow cavity from hematoma
cartilage forms around bone from the hematoma
spongy bone formation
calluses are replaced with spongy bone (ossification) dead/damaged bone is removed and replaced the break is secured with a large mass of bone
osteoclasts and osteoblasts reform the bone to normal
80 bones, supports and protects, muscle attachment for: movement of head/neck/trunk, respiration, stabilize and position the appendicular skeleton
14 bones of the skull which protect and support the eyes, ears, nose and mouth
consists of thoracic vertebrae, the ribs and the sternum; protects the heart, lungs, thymus and other structures within the cavity; serves as an attachment site for muscles involved in respiration, positioning vertebral column, movements of the pectoral girdle and upper limb
the bony structure units of the spinal column (26)
lower posterior region of the head/skull
projections of the occipital bone that articulate with lateral masses of the first cervical vertebra
large opening in occipital bone that allows spinal cord to attach to brain
a bump that extends out from the occipital bone
the two bones forming the sidewalls and roof of the cranium, lat. superior skull
superior anterior skull, forms roof of orbits
fossa of the frontal bone that contains the lacrimal gland, located just inside the lateral portion of the supraorbital ridge.
inferior lateral skull (temples)
external acoustic canal
part of the temporal bone that attaches to some of the muscles of the neck
part of the temporal bone that forms part of the posterior cheekbone
sharp (needle-like) projection from the bottom of the temporal bone
suture that separates occipital from parietal
Suture across top front, between frontal and parietal
suture b/t parietal bones
suture that separates parietal and temporal
butterfly-shaped bone at the base of the skull, articulates with the 7 other cranial bones, most central cranial bone, post. walls of orbits and ant. floor of cranium
bony process on sup. center of sphenoid bone
"seat of the saddle" part of the sella turcica, holds the Pituitary gland
sphenoid; bat-shaped portions of the spheniod anterior to the sella turcica
portions of the sphenoid seen exteriorly anterior to the temporal and forming a part of the eye orbits
openings in the bases of the lesser wings through which the optic nerves enter the orbits to serve the eyes
anterior to sphenoid, forms medial wall of orbits, roof of nasal cavity + part of nasal septum
part of the ethmoid bone that forms the roof of the nasal cavity found in the anterior floor of the cranium
openings for olfactory nerves
forms the superior part of the nasal septum
superior nasal conchae
scroll shaped projections on the lateral walls of the nasal cavity; they increase vascular & mucus membrane surface area in the nasal cavities, which aids in the snese of smell, and warm, moisten and filter incoming air
middle nasal conchae
scroll-like projection on each lateral wall of nasal cavity
largest facial bones, form upper jaw/ supports upper teeth, forms inferior orbits + hard palate
sensory nerve to face
forms the anterior portion of the hard palate (roof) of the mouth also forms parts of the nasal cavity and eye orbits
posterior hard palate
forms the inferior portion of the nasal septum, articulates w/ perpendicular palate
cheek bone, lateral walls of orbits
Articulates with zygomatic process of the temporal bone to form the zygomatic arch
form the bridge of the nose, attachment site for cartilage of nose
smallest facial bones, form medial walls of orbits
A groove along the anterior lateral surface of the lacrimal bone
lower jaw bone
Main part of the jaw bone, horizontal part, holds lower teeth
verticle part of jaw.
the posterior upward projection of the ramus that fits into the temporomandibular joint, which is the hinge of the mandible
the anterior, non-articulating process of the ramus of the mandible which serves as the insertion for the temporalis muscle.
air cavities within the cranial bones that open into the nasal cavities, lighten skull bones, acts as resonating chambers for voice, produce mucus, wash debris into nasal cavity, prevent debris from entering nasal tract
Maxillary, Frontal, Sphenoid, Ethmoidal
4 types of paranasal sinuses
26 bones, support head, limbs and trunk, support upper organs, transfers body weight to lower limbs, protects spinal cord
'neck', 7 vertebrae, C1-C7, supports skull, most flexible region, smallest lightest vertebrae,large vertebral foramen, all have 2 transverse foramen, to support artery
superior back, 12 vertebrae, T1-T12, supports thoracic cage, very little flexibility, larger, thicker bodies, smaller vertebral foramen, inferiorly angled spinous processes, each vertebrae articulates w/ a pair of ribs
inferior back, 5 vertebrae, L1-L5, supports abdominal regions, more flexible than thoracic spine, large oval bodies, small triangular vertebral foramen,very large, short spinous processes
base of spine, 5 fused vertebrae, S1-S5, transfers upper body weight to lower limbs
tail bone, 3-5 fused vertebrae, Co1-Co3-5)
c curve of spine, during infancy
cervical and lumbar curves after several months, allows for upright posture and even distribution of weight
spine arches anteriorly, forms cervical and lumbar curves
spine arches posteriorly, forms thoracic and sacral spinal curves
part of vertebrae that is the main structure and most anterior part
posterior part of vertebrae
surrounds the spinal cord, formed by body and vertebral arch
posterior projection of vert. arch, site of muscle attachment
lat. projection of vert. arch,site of muscle attachment
articulations b/t vertebrae
no body or spinous process, extra large vertebral foramen (for brain stem), articulates w/ skull at the occipital condyles, forming the atlantoccipital joint , allows for 'yes'
contains dens process- vertical projection of the body, provides pivot for rotation of atlas, articulates w. atlas forming atlanaxial joint, allows for 'no'
long post. ligament, attaches all spinous process to externa occipital protuberance, provides large area for muscle attachment
fibrocartilage pads located b/t discs, cushion vertebrae +absorb shock
outer layer of fribrocartilage of disc
gelatinous inner core of disc
protrusion of a degenerated or fragmented intervertebral disk so that the nucleus pulposus protrudes, causing compression on the nerve root
triang. wedge, 5 vertebrae fused by 25-30 years old, attaches axial skeleton to appendicular skeleton
sup. edge of sacrum
inferior edge of sacrum
median sacral crest
ridge of the fused spinous processes of the sacral vertebrae
continuation of vertebral canal
Allow the passage of sacral spinal nerves.
lateral edge, articulates with pelvis, forms sacroilac joint
most inferior region of vertebral column, attachment site of muscle controlling anus
consists of thoracic vertebrae, the ribs and the sternum; protects the heart, lungs, thymus and other structures within the cavity; serves as an attachment site for muscles involved in respiration, positioning vertebral column, movements of the pectoral girdle and upper limb
maniubrium (upper part), body, and xhypoid process (lower)+ all parts of the ____.
attachment site for many muscles
cartilage connecting ribs to sternum
direct connection to sternum (1-7)
(8-12), indirectly connected to sternum,
11-12, no connection to sternum
- 1st line of defense - largest system of the body
Protection: underlying tissues and organs Excretion: salts, waters, and organic wastes Regulation: insulation and evaporation Storage: energy; lipids within adipose Sensation: touch, pressure, pain, temperature Synthesizes: vitamin D
- most abundant cells in the epidermis - produce and contain large amounts of keratin - thick, wavy, fibrous protein
covers most of body, has 4 layers of keratinocytes
Layers of Epidermis
Deep to Superficial: Stratum Germanitivum Stratum Spinosum Stratum Granulosum Stratum Lucidum Stratum Corneum
- lot of basal cells - attached to basal lamina by desmosomes - forms a strong bond between epidermis and dermis - epidermal ridges: form fingerpoints
- cells of stratum germinativum - found in hairless skin - respond to touch
- cells of stratum germinativum - contain the pigment melanin - scattered throughout germinativum
- stem cells -cells of stratum germinativum
- "spiny layer" - keratinocytes continue to divide, increasing thickness of epithelium - 8-10 layers of keratinocytes - cells shrink until their cytoskeletons stick out (spiny)
- in stratum spinosum - defend against microorganisms and cancer cells
- "grainy layer" - keratinocytes stop dividing and start producing: ~ keratin: a tough, waxy, fibrous protein ~ cells fill with keratin, dehydrate, and begin to die
- "clear layer" - found only in thick skin - covers stratum granulosum - keratinocytes are: dead, flat, densely packed with keratin, cells have become keratinized
- formation of a layer of dead, protective cells filled with keratin - occurs on all exposed skin surfaces except the eyes
- "horn layer" - exposed surface of skin - 15 to 30 layers of keratinized cells - water resistant - shed and replaced every 2 weeks
Skin Life Cycle
- it takes 15 to 30 days for a cell to move from - stratum germinativum to stratum corneum
Depends on: 1. the pigments carotene and melanin 2. blood circulation (red cells) 3. illness
- orange-yellow pigment - found in orange vegetables (squash, carrots) - accumulates in keratinocytes and adipocytes - can be converted to vitamin A
- yellow-brown pigment - produced by melanocytes in stratum germinativum - stored in transport vesicles: melanosomes - then transferred to keratinocytes
Functions: 1. protects skin from sun damage - excessive UV radiation causes: ~ DNA mutations -> Cancer ~ Fibroblast impairment -> wrinkles - UV radiation activates melanocytes
- highly oxegenated blood i bright red - a drop in blood flow creates pale skin
- a severe reduction in blood flow of oxygenation - bluish skin tint
- build up of bile - produced by liver - yellow color of skin and eyes
- leukoderma - loss of melanocytes - loss of pigment
- cancer of the melanocytes in the germinativum - least common type of cancer - most dangerous type: aggressive metastasis (spreads rapidly) - often starts out as a mole
Basel Cell Carcinoma
- cancer of the keratinocytes in the germinativum - most common cancer type - safe: non- metastasizing
- deep to epidermis and superficial to the subcutaneous layer - vascular and innervated - anchors accessory structures of the epidermis: hair follicles and glands - 2 layers: papillary layer (superficial) + reticular layer (deep)
- areolar tissues - small capillaries: supply the germinativum - sensory receptors - lymph vessels
- increase surface area between the epidermis and dermis - strengthens attachment - increases diffusion of germinativum
- deep layer of dermis - dense irregular connective tissue - supports: hair, glands, nerves, vessels, and muscle
strong- due to collagen fibers elastic- due to elastic fibers flexible
Lines of Cleavage
- collagen and elastic fibers in the dermis - are arranged in parallel bundles - resist force in a specific direction
- inflammation of the papillary layer - causes: ~ chemical irritation: poison ivy, lotions ~ mechanical irritation: clothing, jewerly ~ infection: virus, bacteria - itching or pain
- located deep to the dermis and superficial to muscle and bone - also called: hypodermis or superficial fascia - composed of areolar and adipose connective tissues - stabilizes the skin to deeper tissues - allows skeletal muscle to move independently from the skin - arteries and veins: supply dermal papillary layer - nerves control: blood flow, gland secretion, sensory receptors
(sweat glands) 2 Types: 1. merocrine glands: (also eccrine glands) widely distributed over body surface, more on palms and plantar surfaces, secrete directly onto cutaneous surface 2. apocrine glands: (merocrine secretions) associated with hair follicles, found in axillary and pubic regions, produce sticky, cloudy secretions, odoriferous
Functions: 1. cools skin: skin plays a major role in thermoregulation: the removal of heat from dermal circulation b the evaporation of warmed sweat (perspiration) 2. excretes excess water and electrolytes 3. flushes microorganisms and harmful chemicals from skin surface 4. contains antibacterial proteins
- produce milk - apocrine secretions
- modified sudorifirous glands - produce cerumen- earwax - protect the eardrum from debris and infection
- bleeding occurs - mast cells trigger an inflammatory response
- "the inflammatory response" - germinative cells migrate around the wound - macrophages clean the area - fibroblasts and endothelial cells move in producing granulation tissue - a scab (blood clot) stabilizes and protects the area - fibrin: protein fibers
- fibroblasts produce scar tissue - inflammation increases, clot disintegrates
- fibroblasts strengthen scar tissue - a raised keloid may form
covers palms of hands and soles of feet, has 5 layers of keratinocytes
Covers exposed surfaces Lines passageways, anterior cavities, and chambers Forms glands
Most abundant and varied tissue type Fills spaces between structures Supports and binds tissue together Transports substances Stores energy
Has ability to shorten and contract Creates movement
Skeletal, Cardiac, Smooth
Three types of Muscle
Muscle type that moves body
Muscle type that forms heart
Muscle type that forms walls of hollow organs
Has ability to generate electrical impulses Transmits information between body parts
Covers all exposed surfaces Lines all passageways that lead to the outside of body
Line enclosed cavities and chambers
structures that produce and secrete substances (examples include oil, adrenal, and thymus).
many closely packed cells are attached to each other by cell junctions (specialized areas on cell membrane that attach cells to other cells).
Basal surface and Apical Surface
surface anchored to another surface
the surface exposed to exterior of body or an interior surface.
attached to an underlying tissue by the basal lamina or basement membrane.
lacks a direct blood supply, obtains nutrients by diffusion across a cell membrane.
susceptible to damage and destruction from abrasion and injury. High rates of cell division and replacement of all tissue.
for underlying tissue form abrasion, dehydration, chemicals, and pathogens.
controls the entry and exit of all materials into the body.
contains large number of sensory nerves.
specialized epithelial cells that produce and secrete substances.
the exposed apical surface of epithelial cells that line passageways. They increase surface area of cells and provide an improved absorption or secreition.
sweeps substances along the surface of the epithelium.
specialized areas on cell membrane that attach cells to other cells.
lipid portion of two cell membranes are tightly bound together by interlocking membrane protein. Prevents passage of water and solutes between the cells.
two cells are held together by connexons. Forms a narrow passageway that lets though small molecules and ions. Common among epithelial cells.
interlocking junction proteins that hold together two cells. They are channel proteins.
CAMS and proteoglycans link the opposing cell membranes. These are very strong and can resist stretching and twisting.
squamos cuboidal columnar
flat and irregular shaped cells that are the skin or lining.
square passageways include lining of kidneys.
long and narrow; intestines.
multiple layers (2 +)
reduces friction, controls vessels permeability, and performs absorption and secretion.
lining ventral body cavities.
surface of skin, lining of mouth, throat, esophagus, rectum, anus and vagina.
provides physical protection against abrasion, and chemical attack.
glands, ducts, portion of kidney tubules, thyroid glands
limited protection, secretion, and absorption.
lining of some ducts (rare)
protection, secretion, absorption
lining of stomach, intestines, gallbladder, uterine tubes, and collecting ducts of kidneys.
protection, secretion, absorption.
small areas of pharynx, epiglottis, anus, mammary glands, salivary gland ducts, and urethra
urinary bladder, renal pelvis, ureters
permits expansion and recoil after stretching
any cell that secretes something; specialized cells that produce secretions. They can exist as single cells or masses of cells.
endocrine and exocrine
Types of Glands
secretions called hormones are released by cells into interstitial fluids. Hormones enter the blood stream and are carried throughout the body. These hormones regulate the activities of other tissues, organs, and systems. Examples: pituitary, thyroid, and adrenal.
cells most often form ducts, which channel secretions and release them onto epithelial surfaces. Examples are skin (oil, sweat, tears, milk), lining of internal passageways that lead to external body (intestines, nasal, vagina, respiratory).
Exocrine Gland Structure
scattered throughout epithelium and secrete mucus. Examples include columnar cells of the intestines.
sheets and masses
cells that line compartments and secrete continuously.
stomach: protects deeper tissues from stomach acids.
form ducts that carry secretions to the epithelial surface. This is the most common type of exocrine gland.
merocrine apocrine holocrine
Modes of Secretion
most common type of secretion released through the vesicles by exocytosis
a sticky lubricant that protects and captures dust produced by merocrine secretion
lubricant that glues food together and aids in swallowing produced by merocrine secretion
lubricant that cools the skin produced by merocrine secretion
mode of secretion that releases vesicles along with large amounts of cytoplasm the apical section breaks away with the vesicle
type of apocrine secretion that is produced by the mammary glands
type of secretion in which the vesicle is filled with cytoplasm, and ultimately ruptures. causes the cell to be destroyed and the cell must be replaced
Example of holocrine secretion
serous and mucus
Types of secretions
gland that produces a watery secretion called serous fluid acts as a lubricant
the lining of ventral cavity
mucus is secreted by this gland found in the passageways leading to the outside of the body
lining of the digestive tract and respiratory tract
cells fibers ground substance
Components of connective tissue
cells of connective tissue
many types; highly specialized
extracellular protein strands
a fluid ranging from liquid to solid fills spaces between cells
made up of fibers and ground substances functions in surrounding and supporting the cell
fundection depends on type and number of cells, type and number of fibers, viscosity of ground substance
function of connective tissue which forms the shape of organs and systems
functionf of connective tissue that moves fluids cells and dissolved substances
function of connective tissue that keeps organs safe
Support and Connection
function of connective tissue that supports and connects
stores this function of connective tissue in lipids
this function of connective tissue stops invading by microorganisms
most abundant cell type always present fixed secrete protein fibers and ground substance and matrix
large amoeboid cells that engulf and eat pathogens, damaged cells, and cancer cells. they are fixed or free
cell that secretes histamine and initiates inflammation
stem cells that differentiate into all other cell types
cells that store lipids, or fat
free cells of lymphodic system that participate in immune response and defends the body against pathogens
synthesizes and stores melanin. this protecrs the dna from the suns ultraviolet radiation
created by fibroblasts
bundles of fibrous collagen protein thick, long, straight fibers resists tearing; high tensile strength strongest of all types, yet flexible
also made up of collagen protein interwoven network of thin/branched fibers strong, flexible, and supportive resists pulling forces from many directions
made of elastin branched and wavy fibers able to stretch and relax, returning to their original shape
clear, colorless and viscous viscosity causes pathogens to move slowly; macrophages move easily
Loose Connective Tissue
fills spaces between organs, supports the epithelium, surrounds and supports nerves and blood vessels, and stores lipids
composed mostly of groudn substances; loosely organized fibers that can stretch, bend, and recoil. highly vascularized, and can transport nutrients, wandering cells, wastes binds skin to underlying
similar to areolar tissue; mostly adipocytes functions as padding, insulation, shock absorption, packing most abundant and always present
fibers produce a complete fibrous network that supports cells and forms a fiberous framework for organs
Dense Connective Tissue
collagen fibers dominate in this type of connective tissue
nutrients and wastes are moved by difusion
Dense Regular Connective Tissue
large amounts of fibroblasts densely packed collagen fibers arranged in a parallel cofiguration resists strong pulling
type of dense regular connective tissue that attaches bone to muscle
dense regular connective tissue that connects bone to bone
Elastic Connective Tissue
densely packed elastin fibers form highly flexible ligaments of the spinal column
Fluid Connective tissue
transports things through the body contains a watery matrix that contains cells and small proteins
supporting connective tissue
supports the physical body and provides a strong framework
matrix has very little ground substance mostly made up of calcium salts and collagen fibers strong, flexible, resistant to stretching
gel like matrix contains only chondrocytes; products matrix and chondroitin sulfite occupies spaces called lucunae avascular covered by perichondrium
tough collagen fibers and some flexibility in this type of cartilage found in nose and ends of bone joints
flexible elastin fibers and much flexibility in this type of cartilage located on the outer ear and larynx
dense type of cartilage with collagen fibers little ground substances intervertebral discs resists compression and absorbs shock
offers protection by creating a barrier
membrane that lines passageways and chambers that lead to the outside of the body cells secrete mucus examples: digestive, urinary, respiratory, nasal, reproductive,
thick sticky liquid that traps debris and pathogens and protects deeper tissues
lines passageways and chambers that do not open to the outside of the body surrounds organs within the body cavities secretes serous fluid consists of a mesothelium 2 parts: parietal portion (lines inner surface of the body cavity) and visceral portion (covers organs)
a thin watery substance that provides a slippery friction-less surface
skin covers surface of the body thick, water proof dry, secretes from glandular epithelium
located at the ends of bones that form movable joints secretes synovial fluids combines with hyaline cartilage to create a frictionless surface betwen bones
surrounds the ends of two bones lined with synovial membrane
bands or sheets of connective tissue layers supports and surrounds organs and structures
most superficial layer of fascia contains areolar and adipose separates and attaches skin to underlying tissue insulates, pads, and provides movements
type of fascia that is strong, fibrous internal framework wraps, surrounds, binds, and supports all organs passes around and through structures creates containers that hold structures
seperates and attaches serous membranes to deep fascia contains areolar
cells that shorten and provide movement of skeleton, blood, and food
skeletal muscle tissue
type of muscle tissue that moves the body, generates heart, and has long fiber like cells striated and voluntary
cardiac muscle tissue
type of muscle tissue that is located in the heart striated and involuntary
smooth muscle tissue
type of muscle tissue that is located in the walls of the hollow organs of the ventral cavity short, spindle like cells. nonstriated and involuntary
cells that conduct electrical impulses throughout the body comprises the bodys main communcation system regulates homeostasis produces concious and unconcious thoughts and reflexes
long, fiber like cells of neural tissue
recieves nerve impulses from other neurons
proceses nerve impulses
sends nerve impulses away to other neurons, brain, or organs
supports, maintains, repairs, and nourishes neurons
Gross(or Macroscopic) Anatomy
Study of larger structures of the human body (visible to the human eye)
study of general form and superficial markings.
focuses on the anatomical organization of specific areas of the body, such as the head, neck, or trunk. Emphasizes the spatial relationship among structures already familiar to students.
study of the structure of organ systems, which are groups of organs that function together in a coordinate manner. Examples include the skeletal system, the muscular system, and the cardiovascular system.
Describes the changes in form that occur between conception and physical maturity.
includes a number of subspecialties important in clinical practices. Examples include medical anatomy, radiographic anatomy, and surgical anatomy.
Deals with structures that cannot be seen without magnification.
The analysis of internal structures of individual cells, the simplest unit of life.
The examination of tissue, groups of specialized cells and cell products that work together to perform specific functions. Tissues combine to form organs,
The study of the function of cells. Considers events at the chemical and molecular level.
Study of physiology of specific organs. Example is cardiac physiology
Includes all aspects of the function of specific organ systems. Examples include cardiovascular, respiratory, and reproductive physiology.
Study of the effects of diseases on organs or system functions.
Molecular (Or Chemical)
Atoms combine to form molecules. The functional properties of a particular molecule are determined by its unique three dimensional shape.
The smallest stable units of matter
Combination of atoms in complex shapes.
Form when molecules interact; each have a specific function. They are structural and functional components of cells.
The smallest living units in the body.
Group of cells working together to perform one or more specific function.
Organs consist of two or more tissues working in combination to perform several functions.
highest level of organization. All organs must work together to maintain the life and health.
groups of organs that function together in a coordinate manner.
skin, hair, sweat glands, nails
Major Organs of Integumentary System
protects against environmental hazards, helps regulate body temperature, and provides sensory information.
Skeletal and muscles and associated tendons.
provides movement, provides protection and support for other tissues, and generates heat that maintains body temperature.
produces male and female sex cells, supports developing embryo, and provides milk to nourish newborns.
laying back with face up
the universally accepted anatomical position of the body.
Standing upright, face forward, arms to side, palms forward, legs straight, and feel parallel.
above or higher
below or lower
towards the front
Posterior (or Dorsal)
towards the back
towards the head
towards the tail
towards midline of the body
away from midline of the body
near the attachments of body parts
away from attachments of body part
sole of foot
chambers within the body that contain vital organs and function in protecting organs and allowing for changes in the size and shape of internal organs.
a large anterior cavity that contains the visera
cavity superior division
cavity located at midline and contains pericardial cavity
cavity lateral to Mediastinum and holds 2 lungs
cavity inferior division
cavity contains digestive system organs
cavity contains the female reproductive organs
the adjustment of physiological systems to improve homeostasis.
Auto regulation (intrinsic)
cells, tissues, organs, or systems automatically adjust its own activities in response to an environmental change. Examples include tissues needing oxygen and apoptosis
the nervous or endocrine system adjusting to the activities of other systems. Examples include exercise and stress.
Nervous System Response
very fast and short term
Endocrine System Response
long/slow and uses chemical messengers or hormones
sensor that is sensitive to an environmental stimulus
a cell, organ, or system that receives an processes the information from the receptor and then sends out a command.
a cell or organ that responds by either opposing or enhancing the stimulus.
Negative feedback loop
a stimulus produces a response that opposes or negates the original stimulus. Primary method of homeostatic regulation and provides a long term control over the body's internal condition. Also maintains a range around a set point. Examples include body temperature, hydration, and blood pressure.
Positive feedback loop
A stimulus that produces a response that enhances original conditions. This produces a quick resolution to a potentially dangerous process. Examples include blood clotting and child birth.
Plane that divides the body into left and right parts
left and right equal portions of sagittal
left and right portions of sagittal are unequal
Plane that divides the body into front and back portions
Plane that divides body into upper and lower portions
Position in which you lay on your stomach with your face down
closer to the surface
away from the surface
a long posterior cavity containing the brain and the spinal cord
cavity that is located in the skull and contains the brain
cavity that is located in the spine and contains the spinal cord