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Anatomy Midterm Review FInal

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Bones
the organs of the skeletal system
dynamic, living tissue
206 bones total
Flat, Long, Short, Irregular, Sesamoid, Sutural(Wormian)
Classification of Bone
Flat
thin and broad
sternum, scapula, cranium
provides protective shield
provides a large area for muscle attachment
Long
Long and narrow
curved to distribute weight and resist bending and twisting
arms hands fingers and legs
Short
small and boxy
square life; resists high pressure
Irregular
complex shapes
vetebral, face, pelvis
Sesamoid
small bones embedded in tendons and over joints
patella are the knee caps
Sutural
small bones embedded between the flat bones of the skull
diaphysis, epiphysis, metaphysis
Parts of a Long Bone
Diaphysis
long, center shaft
compact bone made of dense outer layer
marrow cavity is made of hollow central space
contains yellow bone marrow
Epiphysis
expanded ends
spongy bone, a network of struts and plates called trabeculae
cortex made of thin outer layer of compact bone
contains red bone marrow
Metaphysis
narrow region between diaphysis and epiphysis
Supportive framework
soft tissues and organs
one of the functions of one
Protection
function of bone that affects the brain (skull--> cranial cavity)
spinal cord (spinal column --> spinal cavity)
lungs and heart (rib cage --> thoracic cavity)
reproductive organs (pelvis --> pelvic cavity)
movement
bones are levers pulled by muscles
function of bone
mineral storage
function of bone
calcium, phosphate (required for certain processes)
lipid storage
function of bone
adipocytes found in yellow bone marroe
store fat to protect from starvation
blood cell production
hemopoiesis
function of bone that occurs in red bone marrow
matrix
forms into circular layers called lamellae (bone cells, collagen fibers, and calcium phosphate)
remodels to patterns of activity
osteoprogenitor
type of bone cell that is the stem cell.
differentiates into osteoblasts
maintains osteoblast population
located in periosteum and endosteum
periosteum
the inner cellular layer
endosteum
lining of marrow cavity
osteoblasts
produces new bone matrix through osteogenesis
makes collagen fibers and ground substances
regulates the deposition of calcium salts in the matrix
osteoclasts
removes and recycles bone matrix through process of osteolysis
secretes acids and enzymes that dissolve the matrix and releases the stored minerals in the blood stream
originates from stem cells that create macrophages
largest of the bone cells
osteocytes
mature bone cells
they are osteoblasts that have become encased in bone
breakdown and buildup the local matrix
lamellae
concentric layers of matrix that is arranged in cylinders
osteons
functional unit of compact bone
a cylinder of lamellae
aligned parallel to surface of the bone
provides great compressive strength
central canal
center hole
contains blood vessels that supply the cells of the osteon
perforating canal
perpendicular canal that contains blood vessels that supply deeper osteons and marrow cavity
lucunae
small chambers between lamellae that contains osteons
canaliculi
narrow passageway in the lamellaw that connects adjacent lacunae
allows osteocytes to form gap junctions
allows for passage of nutrients and hormones
spongy bone
located in epiphysis of long bone
is not organized in osteons
trabeculae
struts and plates of lamellae
forms an open network of light weight bone
periosteum
2 layers of membrane covering the bone
composed of dense irregular conenctive tissue outer layer
the inside is made of epithelial
periosteum function
isolates and protects the bone
contains cells active in bone growth and repair
collagen fibers ancher other tissue to bone
blood vessels, tendons, sheaths, nerves, ligaments, capsules
endosteum
membrane lining on compact and spongy bone
only one layer
lines marrow cavity and covers trabeculae
cells are active in bone growth and repair just like periosteum
osteogenesis
bone formation
ossification
process of replacing tissue with bone
calcification
deposition of calcium salts
occurs 3 weeks after fertilization until age 25
endochondral ossification
hyaline cartilage
superficial bone formation
primary ossification center
marrow cavity formation
secondary ossification center
bone formation completes
hyaline cartilage
chondrocytes increase in size
matrix reduces to thin struts that calcify
chondrocytes die and disintegrate
superficial bone formation
blood vessels grow into perichondrium
osteoblasts form and produce thin layer of bone around shafts of the cartilage
perichondrium becomes periosteum
primary ossification center
blood vessels grow into center of cartilage
osteoblasts form and produce spongy bone
spongy bone spreads towards both epiphyses
marrow cavity formation
osteoclasts break down spongy bone to create marrow cavity
diaphysis becomes wider and longer
secondary ossification center
blood vessels grow into the epiphysis
osteoclasrs form and spongy bone is produced
bone formation completes
ossification completed
a thin layer of articular cartilage remains
intramembranous ossification
conversion of fibrous connective tissue to bone
occupy in the deep dermal layers
produces flat bones
any soft tissue can become bone if abnormally stretched
remodeling
a homeostatic mechanism of bone
the recycling and renewing of bone matrix
the continuous breaking down and building up of bone
ongoing osteoclast and osteoblast activity
regulate blood calcium levels to ensure proper function of muscles and nerves
adapt bones to the mechanical stresses of muscles
repair and replace damaged or diseased bone
excercise
mechanical stress caused by
muscles pulling on bone
body weight

mechanical stress causes calcium mineral crystals to generate eletrical currents. electrical currents attract and stimulate osteoblast activity. lack of excercise promotes osteoclast activity.
hormones
regulate bone growth and remodeling
human growth hormone
hormone that is secreted by pituitary and functions in growth thoughout lifetime
estrogen/androgen
secreted by ovaries and testes; horomone that controls growth and puberty and beyond
calcitriol
secreted by kidneys
hormone that promotes intestinal calcium absorption
parathyroid hormone
secreted by parathyroid gland
increases blood calcium levels by increasing osteoclast activity
calcitonin
secreted by thyroid gland
decreases blood calcium levels by decreasing osteoclast activity
aging
reduces hgh and sex hormones
begins at age 30
slow osteoblast activity
osteoclast activity remains constant
osteopenia
inadequate ossification
affects epiphysis, vertebrae, and mandible
osteoporosis
a condition of severe bone loss
affects females more than men because of estrogen
and close
types of fractureopen
closed fracture
simple: internal; no projection of bone through skin
open fracture
compound; bone projects through skin
dangerous
possible blood loss and infection
healing process
fracture hematoma formation
callus formation
spongy bone formation
remodeling
fracture hematoma formation
blood clot
many blood vessels broken; causes extensive bleeding
lack of blood leads to much bone death
healing process
callus formation; internal and external
internal callus
forms in the marrow cavity from hematoma
external callus
cartilage forms around bone from the hematoma
spongy bone formation
calluses are replaced with spongy bone (ossification)
dead/damaged bone is removed and replaced
the break is secured with a large mass of bone
remodeling
osteoclasts and osteoblasts reform the bone to normal
Axial skeleton
80 bones, supports and protects, muscle attachment for: movement of head/neck/trunk, respiration, stabilize and position the appendicular skeleton
Cranial Bones
8 bones
Facial bones
14 bones of the skull which protect and support the eyes, ears, nose and mouth
Thoracic cage
consists of thoracic vertebrae, the ribs and the sternum; protects the heart, lungs, thymus and other structures within the cavity; serves as an attachment site for muscles involved in respiration, positioning vertebral column, movements of the pectoral girdle and upper limb
vertebrae
the bony structure units of the spinal column (26)
occipital
lower posterior region of the head/skull
occipital condyles
projections of the occipital bone that articulate with lateral masses of the first cervical vertebra
foramen magnum
large opening in occipital bone that allows spinal cord to attach to brain
occipital protuberance
a bump that extends out from the occipital bone
parietal
the two bones forming the sidewalls and roof of the cranium, lat. superior skull
frontal
superior anterior skull, forms roof of orbits
lacrimal fossa
fossa of the frontal bone that contains the lacrimal gland, located just inside the lateral portion of the supraorbital ridge.
temporal
inferior lateral skull (temples)
external acoustic canal
ear hole
mastoid process
part of the temporal bone that attaches to some of the muscles of the neck
zygomatic process
part of the temporal bone that forms part of the posterior cheekbone
styloid process
sharp (needle-like) projection from the bottom of the temporal bone
lamdoid
suture that separates occipital from parietal
coronal
Suture across top front, between frontal and parietal
sagittal
suture b/t parietal bones
squamous
suture that separates parietal and temporal
Sphenoid
butterfly-shaped bone at the base of the skull, articulates with the 7 other cranial bones, most central cranial bone, post. walls of orbits and ant. floor of cranium
sella turcica
bony process on sup. center of sphenoid bone
hypophyseal fossa
"seat of the saddle" part of the sella turcica, holds the Pituitary gland
lesser wings
sphenoid; bat-shaped portions of the spheniod anterior to the sella turcica
greater wings
portions of the sphenoid seen exteriorly anterior to the temporal and forming a part of the eye orbits
optic canals
openings in the bases of the lesser wings through which the optic nerves enter the orbits to serve the eyes
ethmoid
anterior to sphenoid, forms medial wall of orbits, roof of nasal cavity + part of nasal septum
cribriform plate
part of the ethmoid bone that forms the roof of the nasal cavity found in the anterior floor of the cranium
olfactory foramina
openings for olfactory nerves
perpendicular plate
forms the superior part of the nasal septum
superior nasal conchae
scroll shaped projections on the lateral walls of the nasal cavity; they increase vascular & mucus membrane surface area in the nasal cavities, which aids in the snese of smell, and warm, moisten and filter incoming air
middle nasal conchae
scroll-like projection on each lateral wall of nasal cavity
Maxillary
largest facial bones, form upper jaw/ supports upper teeth, forms inferior orbits + hard palate
infraorbital foramen
sensory nerve to face
palatine process
forms the anterior portion of the hard palate (roof) of the mouth also forms parts of the nasal cavity and eye orbits
palatine
posterior hard palate
vomer
forms the inferior portion of the nasal septum, articulates w/ perpendicular palate
zygomatic bone
cheek bone, lateral walls of orbits
temporal process
Articulates with zygomatic process of the temporal bone to form the zygomatic arch
nasal
form the bridge of the nose, attachment site for cartilage of nose
lacrimal
smallest facial bones, form medial walls of orbits
lacrimal sulcus
A groove along the anterior lateral surface of the lacrimal bone
mandible
lower jaw bone
mandible body
Main part of the jaw bone, horizontal part, holds lower teeth
mandible ramus
verticle part of jaw.
condylar process
the posterior upward projection of the ramus that fits into the temporomandibular joint, which is the hinge of the mandible
coronoid process
the anterior, non-articulating process of the ramus of the mandible which serves as the insertion for the temporalis muscle.
paranasal sinuses
air cavities within the cranial bones that open into the nasal cavities, lighten skull bones, acts as resonating chambers for voice, produce mucus, wash debris into nasal cavity, prevent debris from entering nasal tract
Maxillary, Frontal, Sphenoid, Ethmoidal
4 types of paranasal sinuses
Vertebral Column
26 bones, support head, limbs and trunk, support upper organs, transfers body weight to lower limbs, protects spinal cord
cervical
'neck', 7 vertebrae, C1-C7, supports skull, most flexible region, smallest lightest vertebrae,large vertebral foramen, all have 2 transverse foramen, to support artery
thoracic
superior back, 12 vertebrae, T1-T12, supports thoracic cage, very little flexibility, larger, thicker bodies, smaller vertebral foramen, inferiorly angled spinous processes, each vertebrae articulates w/ a pair of ribs
lumbar
inferior back, 5 vertebrae, L1-L5, supports abdominal regions, more flexible than thoracic spine, large oval bodies, small triangular vertebral foramen,very large, short spinous processes
Sacral
base of spine, 5 fused vertebrae, S1-S5, transfers upper body weight to lower limbs
Coccygeal
tail bone, 3-5 fused vertebrae, Co1-Co3-5)
Primary Curves
c curve of spine, during infancy
secondary curves
cervical and lumbar curves after several months, allows for upright posture and even distribution of weight
lordotic curve
spine arches anteriorly, forms cervical and lumbar curves
kyphotic curve
spine arches posteriorly, forms thoracic and sacral spinal curves
body
part of vertebrae that is the main structure and most anterior part
vertebral arch
posterior part of vertebrae
vertebral foramen
surrounds the spinal cord, formed by body and vertebral arch
spinous process
posterior projection of vert. arch, site of muscle attachment
transverse process
lat. projection of vert. arch,site of muscle attachment
articular facets
articulations b/t vertebrae
Atlas
no body or spinous process, extra large vertebral foramen (for brain stem), articulates w/ skull at the occipital condyles, forming the atlantoccipital joint , allows for 'yes'
Axis
contains dens process- vertical projection of the body, provides pivot for rotation of atlas, articulates w. atlas forming atlanaxial joint, allows for 'no'
ligamentum nuchae
long post. ligament, attaches all spinous process to externa occipital protuberance, provides large area for muscle attachment
intervertebral foramen
openings b/t adjoining vertebrae, allow spinal nerves to exit spinal cavity
intervertebral disc
fibrocartilage pads located b/t discs, cushion vertebrae +absorb shock
annulus fibrosis
outer layer of fribrocartilage of disc
nucleus pulposis
gelatinous inner core of disc
herniated disc
protrusion of a degenerated or fragmented intervertebral disk so that the nucleus pulposus protrudes, causing compression on the nerve root
sacrum
triang. wedge, 5 vertebrae fused by 25-30 years old, attaches axial skeleton to appendicular skeleton
base
sup. edge of sacrum
apex
inferior edge of sacrum
median sacral crest
ridge of the fused spinous processes of the sacral vertebrae
sacral canal
continuation of vertebral canal
sacral foramina
Allow the passage of sacral spinal nerves.
articular surface
lateral edge, articulates with pelvis, forms sacroilac joint
coccyx
most inferior region of vertebral column, attachment site of muscle controlling anus
thoracic cage
consists of thoracic vertebrae, the ribs and the sternum; protects the heart, lungs, thymus and other structures within the cavity; serves as an attachment site for muscles involved in respiration, positioning vertebral column, movements of the pectoral girdle and upper limb
sternum
maniubrium (upper part), body, and xhypoid process (lower)+ all parts of the ____.
costals
attachment site for many muscles
costal cartilages
cartilage connecting ribs to sternum
true ribs
direct connection to sternum (1-7)
false ribs
(8-12), indirectly connected to sternum,
floating ribs
11-12, no connection to sternum
The Integument
- 1st line of defense
- largest system of the body
cutaneous membrane (skin) accessory structures
2 Main Parts of Integument
Cutaneous Membrane
- epidermis: superficial; epithelial tissues
- dermis: middle; connective tissue; dense irregular


Plus: subcutaneous: deep; superficial fascia; connective tissues
Accessory Structures
-originate in dermis and extend through the epidermis to the skin surface

ie. hair, nails, multicellular exocrine glands; blood vessels, sensory receptors for pain/temp/pressure
Skin
Protection: underlying tissues and organs
Excretion: salts, waters, and organic wastes
Regulation: insulation and evaporation
Storage: energy; lipids within adipose
Sensation: touch, pressure, pain, temperature
Synthesizes: vitamin D
Epidermis
- stratified squamous epithelium
- avascular
- protects underlying tissue
Keratinocytes
- most abundant cells in the epidermis
- produce and contain large amounts of keratin
- thick, wavy, fibrous protein
Thin Skin
covers most of body, has 4 layers of keratinocytes
Layers of Epidermis
Deep to Superficial:
Stratum Germanitivum
Stratum Spinosum
Stratum Granulosum
Stratum Lucidum
Stratum Corneum
Stratum Germinativum
- lot of basal cells
- attached to basal lamina by desmosomes
- forms a strong bond between epidermis and dermis
- epidermal ridges: form fingerpoints
Merkel Cells
- cells of stratum germinativum
- found in hairless skin
- respond to touch
Melanocytes
- cells of stratum germinativum
- contain the pigment melanin
- scattered throughout germinativum
Basal Cells
- stem cells
-cells of stratum germinativum
Stratum Spinosum
- "spiny layer"
- keratinocytes continue to divide, increasing thickness of epithelium
- 8-10 layers of keratinocytes
- cells shrink until their cytoskeletons stick out (spiny)
Langerhans Cells
- in stratum spinosum
- defend against microorganisms and cancer cells
Stratum Granulosum
- "grainy layer"
- keratinocytes stop dividing and start producing:
~ keratin: a tough, waxy, fibrous protein
~ cells fill with keratin, dehydrate, and begin to die
Stratum Lucidum
- "clear layer"
- found only in thick skin
- covers stratum granulosum
- keratinocytes are: dead, flat, densely packed with keratin, cells have become keratinized
Keratinization
- formation of a layer of dead, protective cells filled with keratin
- occurs on all exposed skin surfaces except the eyes
Stratum Corneum
- "horn layer"
- exposed surface of skin
- 15 to 30 layers of keratinized cells
- water resistant
- shed and replaced every 2 weeks
Skin Life Cycle
- it takes 15 to 30 days for a cell to move from
- stratum germinativum to stratum corneum
Skin Color
Depends on:
1. the pigments carotene and melanin
2. blood circulation (red cells)
3. illness
Carotene
- orange-yellow pigment
- found in orange vegetables (squash, carrots)
- accumulates in keratinocytes and adipocytes
- can be converted to vitamin A
Melanin
- yellow-brown pigment
- produced by melanocytes in stratum germinativum
- stored in transport vesicles: melanosomes
- then transferred to keratinocytes
Melanocytes
Functions:
1. protects skin from sun damage
- excessive UV radiation causes:
~ DNA mutations -> Cancer
~ Fibroblast impairment -> wrinkles
- UV radiation activates melanocytes
Blood Flow
- highly oxegenated blood i bright red
- a drop in blood flow creates pale skin
Cyanosis
- a severe reduction in blood flow of oxygenation
- bluish skin tint
Jaundice
- build up of bile
- produced by liver
- yellow color of skin and eyes
Vitiligo
- leukoderma
- loss of melanocytes
- loss of pigment
Melanoma
- cancer of the melanocytes in the germinativum
- least common type of cancer
- most dangerous type: aggressive metastasis (spreads rapidly)
- often starts out as a mole
Basel Cell Carcinoma
- cancer of the keratinocytes in the germinativum
- most common cancer type
- safe: non- metastasizing
Dermis
- deep to epidermis and superficial to the subcutaneous layer
- vascular and innervated
- anchors accessory structures of the epidermis: hair follicles and glands
- 2 layers: papillary layer (superficial) + reticular layer (deep)
Papillary Layer
- areolar tissues
- small capillaries: supply the germinativum
- sensory receptors
- lymph vessels
Dermal Papillae
- increase surface area between the epidermis and dermis
- strengthens attachment
- increases diffusion of germinativum
Reticular Layer
- deep layer of dermis
- dense irregular connective tissue
- supports: hair, glands, nerves, vessels, and muscle
Dermis
strong- due to collagen fibers
elastic- due to elastic fibers
flexible
Lines of Cleavage
- collagen and elastic fibers in the dermis
- are arranged in parallel bundles
- resist force in a specific direction
Dermatitis
- inflammation of the papillary layer
- causes:
~ chemical irritation: poison ivy, lotions
~ mechanical irritation: clothing, jewerly
~ infection: virus, bacteria
- itching or pain
Subcutaneous Layer
- located deep to the dermis and superficial to muscle and bone
- also called: hypodermis or superficial fascia
- composed of areolar and adipose connective tissues
- stabilizes the skin to deeper tissues
- allows skeletal muscle to move independently from the skin
- arteries and veins: supply dermal papillary layer
- nerves control: blood flow, gland secretion, sensory receptors
Glands of Accessory Structures
Sebaceous Gland (oil)- sebum
Sudorifirous Gland- sweat
Hair
- body is covered with except: palms, soles, lips, and portions of external genitalia
- functions: protects and insulates, guards openings against insects and dust
- sensitive to very light touch
Hair Follicle
- located deep in dermis
- produces nonliving hairs
- wrapped in a sheath of dense irregular CT
- base is surrounded by sensory nerves: root hair plexus
Hair Root
- lower part of the hair
- attached to the dermis
Hair Shaft
- protects upper part of hair
- NOT attached to dermis
Arrector Pili
- involuntary smooth muscle
- causes hair to stand up
- produces "goose bumps"
- contracts sebaceous gland
Sebaceous Gland
- lubricates and conditions hair and corneum
- prevents against bacterial infection
Hair Color
- produced by melanocytes
- determined by genes
Nail Body
- visible portion of the nail
- covers the nail bed: epithelium
- dead, tightly compressed keratin filled cells
Lunula
Pale crescent at the base of the nail
Free Edge
extends over the hyponychium (corneum)
Epithelial Cells
Nail Root
germinative portion
Eponychium
the cuticle
Functions of Nail
- protects fingertips from injury
- used as tools
Sebaceous Gland
(oil glands)
- holocrine glands
- secrete sebum:
~ oily substance composed of lipids
~ lubricates epidermis and hair
~ inhibits bacterial growth
2 Types of Sebaceous Glands
1. sebaceous glands: associated with hair follicles
2. sebaceous follicles: discharge directly onto skin surface (epithelial surface)
ie. face, back, chest, nipples, male genitalia
Sudorifirous Gland
(sweat glands)
2 Types:
1. merocrine glands: (also eccrine glands) widely distributed over body surface, more on palms and plantar surfaces, secrete directly onto cutaneous surface
2. apocrine glands: (merocrine secretions) associated with hair follicles, found in axillary and pubic regions, produce sticky, cloudy secretions, odoriferous
Merocrine Sweat
Functions:
1. cools skin: skin plays a major role in thermoregulation: the removal of heat from dermal circulation b the evaporation of warmed sweat (perspiration)
2. excretes excess water and electrolytes
3. flushes microorganisms and harmful chemicals from skin surface
4. contains antibacterial proteins
Mammary Glands
- produce milk
- apocrine secretions
Ceruminous Glands
- modified sudorifirous glands
- produce cerumen- earwax
- protect the eardrum from debris and infection
Step 1
- bleeding occurs
- mast cells trigger an inflammatory response
Step 2
- "the inflammatory response"
- germinative cells migrate around the wound
- macrophages clean the area
- fibroblasts and endothelial cells move in producing granulation tissue
- a scab (blood clot) stabilizes and protects the area
- fibrin: protein fibers
Step 3
- fibroblasts produce scar tissue
- inflammation increases, clot disintegrates
Step 4
- fibroblasts strengthen scar tissue
- a raised keloid may form
Thick Skin
covers palms of hands and soles of feet, has 5 layers of keratinocytes
Epithelial
Covers exposed surfaces
Lines passageways, anterior cavities, and chambers
Forms glands
Connective
Most abundant and varied tissue type
Fills spaces between structures
Supports and binds tissue together
Transports substances
Stores energy
Muscle
Has ability to shorten and contract
Creates movement
Skeletal, Cardiac, Smooth
Three types of Muscle
Skeletal Muscle
Muscle type that moves body
Cardiac Muscle
Muscle type that forms heart
Smooth Muscle
Muscle type that forms walls of hollow organs
Nervous
Has ability to generate electrical impulses
Transmits information between body parts
Multiple Layers
Covers all exposed surfaces
Lines all passageways that lead to the outside of body
Single Layers
Line enclosed cavities and chambers
Glands
structures that produce and secrete substances (examples include oil, adrenal, and thymus).
Cellularity
many closely packed cells are attached to each other by cell junctions (specialized areas on cell membrane that attach cells to other cells).
Polarity
Basal surface and Apical Surface
Basal Surface
surface anchored to another surface
Apical surface
the surface exposed to exterior of body or an interior surface.
Attachment
attached to an underlying tissue by the basal lamina or basement membrane.
Avascular
lacks a direct blood supply, obtains nutrients by diffusion across a cell membrane.
Regeneration
susceptible to damage and destruction from abrasion and injury. High rates of cell division and replacement of all tissue.
Functions
physical protection controls permeability sensation highly innervated secretions
Physical protection
for underlying tissue form abrasion, dehydration, chemicals, and pathogens.
Controls Permeability
controls the entry and exit of all materials into the body.
Highly innervated
contains large number of sensory nerves.
Glandular epithelium
specialized epithelial cells that produce and secrete substances.
Microvilli
the exposed apical surface of epithelial cells that line passageways. They increase surface area of cells and provide an improved absorption or secreition.
Cilia
sweeps substances along the surface of the epithelium.
Cell Junctions
specialized areas on cell membrane that attach cells to other cells.
Tight Junctions
lipid portion of two cell membranes are tightly bound together by interlocking membrane protein. Prevents passage of water and solutes between the cells.
Gap Junctions
two cells are held together by connexons. Forms a narrow passageway that lets though small molecules and ions. Common among epithelial cells.
Connexons
interlocking junction proteins that hold together two cells. They are channel proteins.
Desmosomes
CAMS and proteoglycans link the opposing cell membranes. These are very strong and can resist stretching and twisting.
Cell Shape
squamos cuboidal columnar
Squamous
flat and irregular shaped cells that are the skin or lining.
Cuboidal
square passageways include lining of kidneys.
Columnar
long and narrow; intestines.
Simple epithelium
1 layer
Stratified epithelium
multiple layers (2 +)
Simple squamous
reduces friction, controls vessels permeability, and performs absorption and secretion.
Mesothelium
lining ventral body cavities.
Stratified squamous
surface of skin, lining of mouth, throat, esophagus, rectum, anus and vagina.
Stratified squamous
provides physical protection against abrasion, and chemical attack.
Simple cuboidal
glands, ducts, portion of kidney tubules, thyroid glands
Simple cuboidal
limited protection, secretion, and absorption.
Stratified cuboidal
lining of some ducts (rare)
Stratified cuboidal
protection, secretion, absorption
Simple columnar
lining of stomach, intestines, gallbladder, uterine tubes, and collecting ducts of kidneys.
Simple columnar
protection, secretion, absorption.
stratified columnar
small areas of pharynx, epiglottis, anus, mammary glands, salivary gland ducts, and urethra
stratified columnar
protection
Transitional
urinary bladder, renal pelvis, ureters
Transitional
permits expansion and recoil after stretching
Glands
any cell that secretes something; specialized cells that produce secretions. They can exist as single cells or masses of cells.
endocrine and exocrine
Types of Glands
Endocrine Glands
secretions called hormones are released by cells into interstitial fluids. Hormones enter the blood stream and are carried throughout the body. These hormones regulate the activities of other tissues, organs, and systems. Examples: pituitary, thyroid, and adrenal.
Exocrine Glands
cells most often form ducts, which channel secretions and release them onto epithelial surfaces. Examples are skin (oil, sweat, tears, milk), lining of internal passageways that lead to external body (intestines, nasal, vagina, respiratory).
Unicellular
Exocrine Gland Structure
Goblet
scattered throughout epithelium and secrete mucus. Examples include columnar cells of the intestines.
Mucous
is secreted.
Multicellular Glands
sheets and masses
Sheets
cells that line compartments and secrete continuously.
Sheets
stomach: protects deeper tissues from stomach acids.
Masses
form ducts that carry secretions to the epithelial surface. This is the most common type of exocrine gland.
merocrine apocrine holocrine
Modes of Secretion
Merocrine secretion
most common type of secretion
released through the vesicles by exocytosis
Mucus
a sticky lubricant that protects and captures dust
produced by merocrine secretion
saliva
lubricant that glues food together and aids in swallowing
produced by merocrine secretion
sweat
lubricant that cools the skin
produced by merocrine secretion
Apocrine Secretion
mode of secretion that releases vesicles along with large amounts of cytoplasm
the apical section breaks away with the vesicle
Milk
type of apocrine secretion that is produced by the mammary glands
Holocrine secretion
type of secretion in which the vesicle is filled with cytoplasm, and ultimately ruptures.
causes the cell to be destroyed and the cell must be replaced
Oil
Example of holocrine secretion
serous and mucus
Types of secretions
Serous glands
gland that produces a watery secretion called serous fluid
acts as a lubricant
Serous
the lining of ventral cavity
Mucus glands
mucus is secreted by this gland
found in the passageways leading to the outside of the body
Mucus Gland
lining of the digestive tract and respiratory tract
cells fibers ground substance
Components of connective tissue
cells of connective tissue
many types; highly specialized
fibers
extracellular protein strands
ground substance
a fluid ranging from liquid to solid
fills spaces between cells
Matrix
made up of fibers and ground substances
functions in surrounding and supporting the cell
Connective Tissue
fundection depends on type and number of cells, type and number of fibers, viscosity of ground substance
Structural framework
function of connective tissue which forms the shape of organs and systems
Transportation
functionf of connective tissue that moves fluids cells and dissolved substances
Protection
function of connective tissue that keeps organs safe
Support and Connection
function of connective tissue that supports and connects
energy reserves
stores this function of connective tissue in lipids
defense
this function of connective tissue stops invading by microorganisms
Classifications of Connective tissue
connective tssue proper
fluid connective tissue
supportive connective tissue
Connective tissue proper
two types: loose and dense
Fluid Connective Tissue
blood and lymph
Supportive connective tissue
cartilage and bone
fibroblast
most abundant cell type
always present
fixed
secrete protein fibers and ground substance and matrix
macrophages
large amoeboid cells that engulf and eat pathogens, damaged cells, and cancer cells.
they are fixed or free
Mast Cells
cell that secretes histamine and initiates inflammation
Mesenchymal cells
stem cells that differentiate into all other cell types
Adipocytes
cells that store lipids, or fat
Lymphocytes
free cells of lymphodic system that participate in immune response and defends the body against pathogens
Melanocytes
synthesizes and stores melanin.
this protecrs the dna from the suns ultraviolet radiation
Protein Fibers
created by fibroblasts
Collagen Fibers
bundles of fibrous collagen protein
thick, long, straight fibers
resists tearing; high tensile strength
strongest of all types, yet flexible
Reticular fibers
also made up of collagen protein
interwoven network of thin/branched fibers
strong, flexible, and supportive
resists pulling forces from many directions
Elastic Fibers
made of elastin
branched and wavy fibers
able to stretch and relax, returning to their original shape
Ground Substance
clear, colorless and viscous
viscosity causes pathogens to move slowly; macrophages move easily
Loose Connective Tissue
fills spaces between organs, supports the epithelium, surrounds and supports nerves and blood vessels, and stores lipids
Areolar Tissue
composed mostly of groudn substances; loosely organized fibers that can stretch, bend, and recoil.
highly vascularized, and can transport nutrients, wandering cells, wastes
binds skin to underlying
Adipose Tissue
similar to areolar tissue; mostly adipocytes
functions as padding, insulation, shock absorption, packing
most abundant and always present
Reticular
fibers produce a complete fibrous network that supports cells and forms a fiberous framework for organs
Dense Connective Tissue
collagen fibers dominate in this type of connective tissue
Avascular
nutrients and wastes are moved by difusion
Dense Regular Connective Tissue
large amounts of fibroblasts
densely packed collagen fibers
arranged in a parallel cofiguration
resists strong pulling
Tendon
type of dense regular connective tissue that attaches bone to muscle
Ligament
dense regular connective tissue that connects bone to bone
Elastic Connective Tissue
densely packed elastin fibers
form highly flexible ligaments of the spinal column
Fluid Connective tissue
transports things through the body
contains a watery matrix that contains cells and small proteins
supporting connective tissue
supports the physical body and provides a strong framework
Bone
matrix has very little ground substance
mostly made up of calcium salts and collagen fibers
strong, flexible, resistant to stretching
Cartilage
gel like matrix
contains only chondrocytes; products matrix and chondroitin sulfite
occupies spaces called lucunae
avascular
covered by perichondrium
Hyaline Cartilage
tough collagen fibers and some flexibility in this type of cartilage
found in nose and ends of bone joints
Elastic Cartilage
flexible elastin fibers and much flexibility in this type of cartilage
located on the outer ear and larynx
fibrocartilage
dense type of cartilage with collagen fibers
little ground substances
intervertebral discs
resists compression and absorbs shock
membrane
offers protection by creating a barrier
Mucous membrane
membrane that lines passageways and chambers that lead to the outside of the body
cells secrete mucus
examples: digestive, urinary, respiratory, nasal, reproductive,
mucus
thick sticky liquid that traps debris and pathogens and protects deeper tissues
Serous Membrane
lines passageways and chambers that do not open to the outside of the body
surrounds organs within the body cavities
secretes serous fluid
consists of a mesothelium
2 parts: parietal portion (lines inner surface of the body cavity) and visceral portion (covers organs)
Serous fluid
a thin watery substance that provides a slippery friction-less surface
cutaneous membrane
skin
covers surface of the body
thick, water proof dry,
secretes from glandular epithelium
Synovial membrane
located at the ends of bones that form movable joints
secretes synovial fluids
combines with hyaline cartilage to create a frictionless surface betwen bones
capsule
surrounds the ends of two bones
lined with synovial membrane
Fascia
bands or sheets of connective tissue layers
supports and surrounds organs and structures
superficial fascia
most superficial layer of fascia
contains areolar and adipose
separates and attaches skin to underlying tissue
insulates, pads, and provides movements
deep fascia
type of fascia that is strong, fibrous internal framework
wraps, surrounds, binds, and supports all organs
passes around and through structures
creates containers that hold structures
Subserous fascia
seperates and attaches serous membranes to deep fascia
contains areolar
muscle tissue
cells that shorten and provide movement of skeleton, blood, and food
skeletal muscle tissue
type of muscle tissue that moves the body, generates heart, and has long fiber like cells
striated and voluntary
cardiac muscle tissue
type of muscle tissue that is located in the heart
striated and involuntary
smooth muscle tissue
type of muscle tissue that is located in the walls of the hollow organs of the ventral cavity
short, spindle like cells.
nonstriated and involuntary
neural tissue
cells that conduct electrical impulses throughout the body
comprises the bodys main communcation system
regulates homeostasis
produces concious and unconcious thoughts and reflexes
neurons
long, fiber like cells of neural tissue
dendrites
recieves nerve impulses from other neurons
cell body
proceses nerve impulses
axon
sends nerve impulses away to other neurons, brain, or organs
neuroglia
supports, maintains, repairs, and nourishes neurons
Gross(or Macroscopic) Anatomy
Study of larger structures of the human body (visible to the human eye)
Surface Anatomy
study of general form and superficial markings.
Regional Anatomy
focuses on the anatomical organization of specific areas of the body, such as the head, neck, or trunk. Emphasizes the spatial relationship among structures already familiar to students.
Systemic Anatomy
study of the structure of organ systems, which are groups of organs that function together in a coordinate manner. Examples include the skeletal system, the muscular system, and the cardiovascular system.
Developmental Anatomy
Describes the changes in form that occur between conception and physical maturity.
Clinical Anatomy
includes a number of subspecialties important in clinical practices. Examples include medical anatomy, radiographic anatomy, and surgical anatomy.
Microscopic Anatomy
Deals with structures that cannot be seen without magnification.
Cytology
The analysis of internal structures of individual cells, the simplest unit of life.
Histology
The examination of tissue, groups of specialized cells and cell products that work together to perform specific functions. Tissues combine to form organs,
Cell Physiology
The study of the function of cells. Considers events at the chemical and molecular level.
Special Physiology
Study of physiology of specific organs. Example is cardiac physiology
Systemic Physiology
Includes all aspects of the function of specific organ systems. Examples include cardiovascular, respiratory, and reproductive physiology.
Pathological Physiology
Study of the effects of diseases on organs or system functions.
Molecular (Or Chemical)
Atoms combine to form molecules. The functional properties of a particular molecule are determined by its unique three dimensional shape.
Atoms
The smallest stable units of matter
Molecules
Combination of atoms in complex shapes.
Organelles
Form when molecules interact; each have a specific function. They are structural and functional components of cells.
Cells
The smallest living units in the body.
Tissues
Group of cells working together to perform one or more specific function.
Organs
Organs consist of two or more tissues working in combination to perform several functions.
Organism
highest level of organization. All organs must work together to maintain the life and health.
Organ Systems
groups of organs that function together in a coordinate manner.
skin, hair, sweat glands, nails
Major Organs of Integumentary System
Integumentary
protects against environmental hazards, helps regulate body temperature, and provides sensory information.
Muscular
Skeletal and muscles and associated tendons.
Muscular
provides movement, provides protection and support for other tissues, and generates heat that maintains body temperature.
Endocrine
pituitary gland, thyroid gland, pancreas, adrenal glands, gonads, endocrine tissues
Endocrine
directs long term changes in the activities of other organ systems, adjusts metabolic activity and energy use by the body, and controls many structural and function changes during development.
Skeletal
bones, cartilage, associated ligaments, and bone marrow
Skeletal
provides support and protection for other tissues, stores calcium and other minerals, and forms blood cells
Nervous
brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and sense organs.
Nervous
directs immediate response to stimuli, coordinates or moderates activities of other organ systems, and provides and interprets sensory information about external conditions.
Cardiovascular
heart, blood, blood vessels.
Cardiovascular
distributes blood cells, water, and dissolved materials (including nutrients, waste products, oxygen, and carbon dioxide), and distributes heat nd assists in control of body temperature.
Digestive
teeth, tongue, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas.
Digestive
processes and digests food, absorbs and conserves water, absorbs nutrients (water, ions, and breakdown products of dietary sugars, proteins, and fats) and stores energy reserves.
Lymphatic
spleen, thymus, lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, tonsils
Lymphatic
defends against infection and disease and returns tissue fluids to the blood stream.
Respiratory
nasal cavities, sinuses, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, alveoli
Respiratory
delivers air to alveoli, provides oxygen to blood stream, removed carbon dioxide form bloodstream, and produces sound for communication/
Urinary
kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra
Urinary
excretes waste products from the blood, controls water balance by regulating volume of urine produced, stores urine prior to voluntary elimination, regulates blood ion concentrations and pH.
Reproductive
testes, ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, labia, clitoris, mammary glands, epididymis, ductus deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, penis, and scrotum
Reproductive
produces male and female sex cells, supports developing embryo, and provides milk to nourish newborns.
Supine
laying back with face up
Anatomical Position
the universally accepted anatomical position of the body.
Anatomical Position
Standing upright, face forward, arms to side, palms forward, legs straight, and feel parallel.
Superior
above or higher
Inferior
below or lower
Anterior (Ventral)
towards the front
Posterior (or Dorsal)
towards the back
Cranial
towards the head
Caudal
towards the tail
Medial
towards midline of the body
Lateral
away from midline of the body
Proximal
near the attachments of body parts
Distal
away from attachments of body part
Cephalic
head
Cervical
neck
Thoracic
ribcage
Abdominal
stomach
Lumbar
inferior back
Pelvic
pelvis
Pubic
genital area
Inguinal
groin
Gluteal
buttocks
Plantar
sole of foot
Body Cavities
chambers within the body that contain vital organs and function in protecting organs and allowing for changes in the size and shape of internal organs.
Ventral Cavity
a large anterior cavity that contains the visera
Thoracic Cavity
cavity superior division
Mediastinum
cavity located at midline and contains pericardial cavity
Pleural Cavities
cavity lateral to Mediastinum and holds 2 lungs
Abdominopelvic Cavity
cavity inferior division
Abdominal Cavity
cavity contains digestive system organs
Pelvic Cavity
cavity contains the female reproductive organs
Homeostatic Regulation
the adjustment of physiological systems to improve homeostasis.
Auto regulation (intrinsic)
cells, tissues, organs, or systems automatically adjust its own activities in response to an environmental change. Examples include tissues needing oxygen and apoptosis
Extrinsic regulation
the nervous or endocrine system adjusting to the activities of other systems. Examples include exercise and stress.
Nervous System Response
very fast and short term
Endocrine System Response
long/slow and uses chemical messengers or hormones
Receptor
sensor that is sensitive to an environmental stimulus
Control
a cell, organ, or system that receives an processes the information from the receptor and then sends out a command.
Effectors
a cell or organ that responds by either opposing or enhancing the stimulus.
Negative feedback loop
a stimulus produces a response that opposes or negates the original stimulus. Primary method of homeostatic regulation and provides a long term control over the body's internal condition. Also maintains a range around a set point. Examples include body temperature, hydration, and blood pressure.
Positive feedback loop
A stimulus that produces a response that enhances original conditions. This produces a quick resolution to a potentially dangerous process. Examples include blood clotting and child birth.
Sagittal Plane
Plane that divides the body into left and right parts
Midsagittal
left and right equal portions of sagittal
Parasagittal
left and right portions of sagittal are unequal
Frontal Plane
Plane that divides the body into front and back portions
Transverse Plane
Plane that divides body into upper and lower portions
Prone Position
Position in which you lay on your stomach with your face down
Superficial
closer to the surface
Deep
away from the surface
Buccal
cheek
Axillary
armpit
Umbilicus
navel
femoral
anterior thigh
occipital
posterior head
popliteal
posterior knee
sural
posterior calf
Dorsal Cavity
a long posterior cavity containing the brain and the spinal cord
Cranial Cavity
cavity that is located in the skull and contains the brain
Spinal Cavity
cavity that is located in the spine and contains the spinal cord