abnormal psychology 1st exam tramonte

Term
1 / 119
case study
Click the card to flip 👆
Terms in this set (119)
the degree to which events or characteristics vary with each other, how they relate to one another

Correlational studies are a type of research often used in psychology as a preliminary way to gather information about a topic or in situations where performing an experiment is not possible.

The correlational method involves looking at relationships between two or more variables. While researchers can use correlations to see if a relationship exists, the variables themselves are not under the control of the researchers.

Another important thing to note is that while correlational research can reveal if a relationship exists between variables, this kind of research cannot prove that changes to one variable lead to changes to another variable. In other words, correlational studies cannot prove cause-and-effect relationships.
a research procedure in which a variable is manipulated (the independent variable) and the manipulation's effect on another variable (the dependent variable) is observed. Two groups are used: a control group that includes a group of subjects who are not exposed to the independent variable under investigation but whose experience is similar to that of the experimental group, the subjects who are exposed to the independent variable. Random assignment (is any selection procedure that ensures that every subject in the experiment is as likely to be placed in one group as the other) and a double-blind design (both the experimenter and participants are blind as to their assigned group) are also used.
proposes that psychological disorders have a biological or medical cause. This model explains disorders such as anxiety, depression, and schizophrenia as caused by faulty neurotransmitter systems, genetic problems, brain damage and dysfunction, or some combination of those causes. TREATMENT: psychotropic drugs, psychiatrists, ECT
disordered behavior is being learned just like a normal behavior is; ex. Emma sees spider and screams, and mother makes big fuss and gives her lots of attention so now every time Emma sees a spider she screams, drawing attention to herself TREATMENT: pavlov, watson, skinner, bandura, miller; systematic desensitization for phobias
attributes abnormal to a person's failure to fulfill personal growth or potential, due to distorted emotions, meaninglessness, or isolation TREATMENT: tendency towards health and self-actualization through humanism like rogers who develope client centered therapy and help people build positive image and existential therapists help patients accept responsibilities of their lives and help them realize that they have the power to make their own choices based on what they want.
NOS is gone replaced by unspecified or other specified disorderFormerly categorized as Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS), the Other Specified Feeding and Eating Disorder diagnosis is applied when an individual's symptoms cause significant distress but do not fit neatly within the strict criteria for anorexia, bulimia, ARFID or binge eating disorder. Previously, EDNOS encompassed a very large and varied group of individuals and was by far the most commonly diagnosed eating disorder. Approximately 40-60% of cases in eating disorder treatment centers fell into the EDNOS category and about 75% of individuals with eating disorders seen at non-specialty community settings had EDNOS. More recently, this diagnostic category was revised and refined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition and is now termed Other Specified Feeding or Eating Disorder, or OSFED. Because of changes to all eating disorder criteria, this "catch-all" category is no longer quite as expansive. Diagnostic examples of Other Specified Feeding or Eating Disorders The Diagnostic & Statistical Manual (DSM-V) currently lists the following five clinical examples of OSFED. Atypical anorexia nervosa: All criteria for anorexia nervosa are met; despite significant weight loss, the individual's weight is within or above the normal range Bulimia nervosa of low frequency and/or limited duration Binge eating disorder of low frequency and/or limited duration Purging disorder Night Eating Syndrome It's important to note that this list in not exhaustive, and there are other situations and variations of symptoms that would also warrant an OSFED diagnosis or the alternative, Unspecified Feeding or Eating Disorder. Signs & Symptoms of OSFED Reviewing the signs and symptoms listed for anorexia, bulimia and binge eating disorder would be helpful if you suspect someone you love may have OSFED. In general you will see warning signs related to 1) weight and shape concerns, 2) food & eating behaviors and 3) changes in personality and social behavior. OSFED Concerns & Misconceptions OSFED is sometimes misinterpreted as a "subclinical" or "sub-threshold" diagnosis. This can be misleading in terms of severity. In the past, studies have shown that individuals who were diagnosed with EDNOS experience eating pathology and medical consequences that are just as, if not more, severe than individuals who receive a formal anorexia or bulimia diagnosis. Furthermore, one study found that 75% of individuals with EDNOS had co-occurring psychiatric disorders and 25% endorsed suicidality (Le Grange, et al. 2012).A hybrid model (categorical dimensional- continuum)• Categorical approach - "This is a large class of frequently observed syndromes (mental disorders) composed of abnormal behaviors or features that occur in a person. This model can be thought of as a "yes-no" approach. One either has or does not have a mental disorder. e.g. presence of anxious or depressive disorder Dimensional approach - This defines abnormal behavior along a continuum or spectrum. Mild, moderate, severe additional info- relationship distress for example: Diagnosis: Major depressive disorder with anxious distress Severity: Moderate Additional information: Relationship distress Each diagnostic category also has a numerical code that clinicians must state—a code listed in ICD-10, the current edition of the international classification system mentioned earlier. Thus if Franco were assigned the DSM-5 diagnosis indicated above, his clinician would also state a numerical code of F32.1—the code corresponding to major depressive disorder, moderate severity.matter of degree = how much or how often"a group of emotional (feelings), cognitive (thinking), or behavioral symptoms that cause distress or significant problems." "The abnormality of emotions, thoughts, or behaviors is a matter of degree, not of kind. In other words, emotions, thoughts, and behaviors associated with mental disorders are present, to some degree, in all of us, and can be viewed on a continuum such as 'normal,' 'mild,' 'moderate,' 'less severe,' and 'more severe."self-fulfilled prophecyIt labels a person. A self-fulfilled prophecy may come true. Labeling dehumanizes a person. It can stigmatize.diagnostic inflationThe more disorders that are included in a new edition of DSM (and we do have diagnostic inflation), then, the more likely it is that a patient's treatment will be paid for or reimbursed by health insurance companies.ICD 10The DSM-5 includes diagnostic criteria along with other information unlike the ICD that includes principally the diagnosis and code for sending to the insurance company. The primary purpose of the ICD is to provide a framework for collecting health statistics worldwide. Unlike the DSM-5, however, the ICD includes many diseases and disorders, not just psychological disorders. In the United States, clinicians, for services rendered and reimbursement purposes, usually use the ICD code that is in the ICD manual and is in the DSM-5 as well.Richard CoryRichard Cory was richer than a king; Royal words used to describe him; Realistic poem; The man everyone looks up to and envies, who seems to have everything kills himself Objective outer behavior Subjective inner behaviorMental disordersInternalizing and externalizing4d modelDysfunctional: Behaviors and feelings are dysfunctional when they interfere with person's ability to function in daily life, to hold a job, or form relationships. Distress: Behaviors and feelings that cause distress to the individual or to others around him or her are considered abnormal. Deviant: Highly deviant behaviors like chronic lying or stealing lead to judgements of abnormality. Dangerous: Behaviors and feelings that are potentially harmful to an individual or the individuals around them are seen as abnormal.causes of abnormal behavior: necessary, sufficient, contributory(1) A necessary cause (e.g. cause X) is a condition that must exist for a disorder (e.g., disorder Y) to occur; if Disorder Y occurs, then Cause X must have preceded it. (2) A sufficient cause (e.g., cause X) of a disorder is a condition that guarantees the occurrence of a disorder (e.g., disorder Y); if Cause X occurs, then Disorder Y will also occur. (3) A contributory cause (e.g., cause X) is one that increases the probability of a disorder (e.g., disorder Y) developing but is neither necessary nor sufficient for the disorder to occur; if X occurs, then the probability of Disorder Y increases.Time Frame Causes (distal causal factors)Some causal factors occur earlier in life and they show effects many years later called distal causal factors that contribute to a predisposition to develop a disorderproximal causal factorsBy contrast, other causal factors operate shortly before the occurrence of the symptoms of a disorder: these would be considered proximal causal factors , triggers or last straws that cause the immediate behavior.reinforcing contributory causeis a condition that tends to maintain maladaptive behavior that is already occurringThomas SzaszHe is a clinical theorist who believes the concept of mental illness to be invalid, a myth. He considers the deviations that society calls abnormal are simply "problems in living" not signs of something wrong within the person.Clifford BeersHe was diagnosed with schizophrenia and was mistreated in mental hospitals. He recovered and became a public advocate for helping those suffering from mental illness. He wrote the book, "A Mind That Found Itself." He is known as the founder for "Humane treatment for people with mental illness."Other causes of abnormal behavior (primary)The primary cause is the one that is the main influence on the disorder the person acquires, it must be there for the person to have the disease or disorder.Other causes of abnormal behavior (predisposition)The predisposition cause is a long-lasting (psychological, biological, or sociocultural) influence on a person, an effect that has predisposed one to a particular disease or mental disorder.Other causes of abnormal behavior (precipitating)The precipitating cause is an immediate influence on a person, it is the trigger of the behavior.Other causes of abnormal behavior (maintaining/reinforcing)The maintaining (reinforcing) cause) is an influence that maintains a person's behavior.somatogenic vs psychogenic perspectives• The Somatogenic Perspective - "the view that abnormal psychological functioning has physical causes." • The Psychogenic Perspective - "the view that the chief causes of abnormal functioning are psychological."6 key perspectives on life span development1. development is a lifelong process 2. includes gains and losses 3. multidimensional, multidirectional, multicausal- age related change occurs in many different areas of development 4. development is plastic 5. development is embedded in historical, cultural, social contexts 6. it is a multidisciplinary field that can't be understood only in psychological terms, need many disciplines to understanda. Normative Age-Graded InfluencesThese are predictable, universally experienced events closely tied to an individual's age. For example, most individuals reach puberty around ages 12 to 14.b. Normative History-Graded Influences(people born during the same time-cohorts, born at about the same time, and experiences similar sociohistorical events at similar points in their lives. For examples, they may have experienced one or more of the same epidemic, periods of famine, war, economic growth, and/or technological advances.c. Nonnormative Influences(related to individual experiences that contribute to uniqueness to our development and personality."Diathesis-Stress modelsuggests that a person may be predisposed for a mental disorder that remains unexpressed until triggered by stresstrephinationAn ancient operation in which a stone instrument was used to cut away a circular section of the skull, perhaps to treat abnormal behavior.obsessive compulsive disorderDisorder in which recurring thoughts, or obsessions create anxiety that is relieved by performing a repetitive, ritualistic behavior or mental act. The obsessions cause the person to show compulsions that are meant to lower the anxiety caused by that obsession.obsessive compulsive related disorder - name 4 typeshoarding, trichotillomania, exocriation, body dysmorphic disorderhoarding disorderDifficulty discarding/departing with posessions regardless of values. Feel they need to save items. Results in accumulation/congestion/cluttering of active living areas that compromises their intended usetrichotillomaniaa disorder characterized by the repeated pulling out of one's own hairexcoriationA skin sore or abrasion produced by scratching or scraping.body dysmorphic disorderPreoccupation with an imagined defect in appearance (sometimes there is a slight defect, but person's concern is excessiveDyssomnias"disturbances in the amount, quality, or timing of sleep."Insomnia"difficulty falling asleep or maintaining sleep."sleep apnea(a Breathing Related Sleep Disorder) - "a respiratory problem in which persons are periodically deprived of oxygen to the brain while they sleep, so that they frequently wake up."hypersomniaSleeping too muchNarcolepsy/hypocretin deficiency"repeated sudden and irrepressible bouts of REM (Rapid Eye Movement) during waking hours." "Sufferers may fall into REM sleep in the midst of an argument or during an exciting part of a football game." "These are irresistible attacks of refreshing sleep that occur daily."Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorder"excessive sleepiness or insomnia as a result of a mismatch between their own sleep-wake pattern and the sleep-wake schedule of most other people in their environment."parasomniasabnormal movements or behaviors during sleepnightmare disordervivid recurrent dreams that significantly disturb sleepSleep Terror DisorderEpisodes of abrupt awakening from sleep, usually during first third w/ panicky scream. Intense fear and autonomic arousal, rapid breathing, sweating, unresponsiveness to others to comfort the person during episode, amnesia of dream detailssleepwalking disorderDisorder of childhood that involves repeated episodes of leaving the bed and walking around without being conscious of the experience or remembering it laterCognitive mapa person's assumptions (1) about himself /herself, (2) about the world, and (3) the relationship between oneself and the world. When one's beliefs are challenged, cognitive dissonance (a conflict) occurs. Conflict can be resolved by assimilation (taking in the new experience, reinterpreting it or distorting it to make it fit but without changing one's cognitive map) or by accommodation (taking in the new experience and changing one s cognitive map to make it possible to incorporate discrepant information).Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs(level 1) Physiological Needs, (level 2) Safety and Security, (level 3) Relationships, Love and Affection, (level 4) Self Esteem, (level 5) Self ActualizationDrapetomaniaMania to seek freedom. Slaves who were trying to escape from masters were considered to have this mental disorder.Dr. Zimbardo's prison-guard experimentshowed how social roles can produce maladaptive behavioranorexia restricting typeThe person restricts their food intake on their own and does not engage in binge-eating or purging behavior. more prevalent in femalesanorexia Binge-Eating/Purging Typedifferent than bulimia, because they have some food that they eat, not as large as what you would see as someone with bulimia, and they purge more thoroughly than someone with bulimia > exercise, take laxatives, throw up. more prevalent in femalesbulimiaAn eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise. more prevalent in femalesbinge eating disorderAn eating disorder in which a person regularly has an uncontrollable urge to eat large amounts of food, but without purging. most recent to be added to DSM. equal prevalence in males and femalesPTSD requires an individual to be experiencing these symptoms for more than a month, what is the condition called for individuals that have been experiencing the symptoms for less than a month?acute stress disorder- A disorder that occurs within 4 weeks after a traumatic event and lasts less than a month. It includes the same aspects described in PTSD below except for the time period.PTSDA disorder that occurs following an actual or threatened traumatic event, in which a person directly, re-experiences the event, witnesses the event, or avoids reminders of the trauma, and exhibits persistent increased arousal. The trauma typically includes experiencing, witnessing, confronting (learning about) an event that involves actual or threatened death or injury to a close relative or friend, or experiencing repeated or extreme exposure to aversive details of the traumatic event.dissociative amnesiaLocalized amnesia is when an individual has no memory of specific events that took place, usually traumatic. The memory loss is localized within a specific window of time (usually several hours or 1-2 days). For example: A car wreck survivor who has no memory of the experience until two days later. Selective amnesia is when a person can recall only small parts of events that took place in a defined period of time. For example: A veteran of a war may recall some details, such as taking prisoners, but not others, such as seeing a good friend get hit. Generalized amnesia is when a person's amnesia encompasses his or her entire life. These individuals are usually found by the police or taken by others to a hospital emergency room. Systematized amnesia is memory loss of a specific category of information. For example: A person with this disorder might be missing all memories about only one specific family member or about a certain location. Continuous amnesia is memory loss which covers the entire period without interruption from a traumatic event in the past to the present.dissociative fuguedisorder in which one travels away from home and is unable to remember details of his past, including often his identitydissociative identity disorderdissociative disorder characterized by the existence within an individual of two or more distinct personalities, each of which is dominant at different times and directs the individual's behavior at those times; commonly known as multiple personality disorderseparate cognitive mapsMultiple Personalities (MP) (people with Dissociative Identity Disorders (DID) who have within them two or more distinct personalities or personality states (alters or alter personalities) and have several cognitive maps.depersonalization/derealization disorderCharacterized by a temporary loss of one's reality and the ability to feel and express emotions; expresses a fear of going crazy; describes a sense of strangeness in the surrounding environment; The false perception by a person that his or her environment has changed. For example, everything may seem bigger or smaller, or familiar objects may appear strange and unfamiliar.Iatrogenica disease produced secondary to the treatment of the patient; often it is the result of side effects of the drug therapy chosen by the physicianadjustment disordersexcessive distress in response to one or more life stressor, usually used for insurance purposes; between normal and full blown ASD and PTSDstate dependent learningState-Dependent Learning If people learn something when they are in a particular situation or state of mind, they are likely to remember it best when they are again in that same condition. If they are given a learning task while under the influence of alcohol, for example, their later recall of the information may be strongest under the influence of alcohol. Similarly, if they smoke cigarettes while learning, they may later have better recall when they are again smoking. This link between state and recall is called state-dependent learning. For people with dissociative amnesia: Although people may remember certain events better in some arousal states than in others, most can recall events under a variety of states. However, perhaps people who are prone to develop dissociative disorders have state-to-memory links that are unusually rigid and narrow (Barlow, 2011). Maybe each of their thoughts, memories, and skills is tied exclusively to a particular state of arousal, so that they recall a given event only when they experience an arousal state almost identical to the state in which the memory was first acquired.self hypnosis in dissociative disordersdissociative disorders may be a form of self-hypnosis in which people hypnotize themselves to forget unpleasant events (Dell, 2010). Dissociative amnesia may develop, for example, in people who, consciously or unconsciously, hypnotize themselves into forgetting horrifying experiences that have recently taken place in their lives. while it can be used to remember events and circumstances, it can conversely be used to make people forget facts, events, and even their personal identities—an effect called hypnotic amnesia.Yin and YangThe human body, like the cosmos, is divided into positive and negative forces that both complement and contradict each other. If the two forces are balanced, the result is physical and mental health. If they are not, illness will result. When the body is out of harmony, illness results. Eastern viewRisk factors (individual)Individual Genetic predispositions (vulnerabilities) Stress (Environmental) Gender = fixed Age = fixed Race = fixed Ethnicity = fixed Social support = dynamic Family history of disorder Low birth rate & premature birth Neuropsychological deficits Language disabilities Chronic physical illness Below average intelligence History of child maltreatmentRisk factors (family)Severe marital discord Overcrowding or large family size Parental criminality Maternal mental disorder Admission to foster careRisk factors (community)Violence Poverty Community disorganization Inadequate schools Racism Sexism DiscriminationProtective factors (individual, family, community)Individual Positive temperament Above average intelligence Social competence Spirituality or religion Family Smaller family structure Supportive relationships with parents Good sibling relationships Adequate monitoring and rule setting by parents Community Commitment to schools Availability of health and social services Social cohesionResilienceThe ability to withstand and rise above extreme adversitynature vs nurturename for a controversy in which it is debated whether genetics or environment is responsible for driving behaviorStressStress: The state of stress has two components: (1) a stressor, an event that creates demands or opportunities that require us to change in some manner, and a stress response, the person's perception and reactions to the demands. Our response to such stressors is influenced by the way we judge both the events and our capacity to react to them in an effective wayTypes of stressors(1) Frustrations: (2) Conflicts (including double approach-approach; double avoidance-avoidance; and approach-avoidance); (3) Life Changes; and (4) Pressures.Multiplicity of stressorsMultiplicity of Stressors: Experiencing many stressors at the same time.stress responseSympathetic nervous system or HPA pathway activates and The reactions on display in these two pathways are collectively referred to as the fight-or-flight response, precisely because they arouse our body and prepare us for a response to danger. The freeze response allows people to quickly assess a dangerous situation. It gives us time to decide to fight or run away. When prey has been caught and feels helpless, it freezes in order to fake death, which might give it an opportunity to escape. Likewise, people with social anxiety might feel helpless while interacting with other people, so they freeze to decide what to do next or to not draw attention to themselves.situation or state anxietyPeople also differ in their sense of which situations are threatening (Moore et al., 2014). Walking through a forest may be fearsome for one person but relaxing for another. Flying in an airplane may arouse terror in some people and boredom in others. Such variations are called differences in situation, or state, anxiety.trait anxietyEach person has a particular pattern of autonomic and endocrine functioning and so a particular way of experiencing arousal and fear. Some people are almost always relaxed, while others typically feel tension, even when no threat is apparent. A person's general level of arousal and anxiety is sometimes called trait anxiety because it seems to be a general trait that each of us brings to the events in our lives. Psychologists have found that differences in trait anxiety appear soon after birth.Holmes Rahe stress inventory300 points or more = 80% chance of health breakdown in the next 2 years, according to the Holmes-Rahe statistical prediction modelemotional insulationA defense mechanism used to reduce ego involvement by protective withdrawal and passivity.What personality makes good combat soldiersantisocial3 steps of initial disaster syndrome1. shock 2. suggestible 3. recovery mechanisms to reduce anxietyfailure to thriveA condition in which babies fail to grow and develop properly due to neglectment and other causesThink black mirrornumbed warfare- killing others in combat by reducing to non-human statusstress inoculation trainingA process that prepares a person for a difficult future event. This training prepares individuals to tolerate an anticipated threat by changing the things they say to themselves before the crisis.Toffler's book. Future Shockrapid social changes can cause stressselective vigilanceEach person selectively chooses what to be aware of. It refers to "the tuning of attentional and perceptual processes toward stimuli relevant or central to goal-directed behavior, with decreased sensitivity to stimuli irrelevant or peripheral to this purpose."Spitz's hospitalism syndromerefers to institutionalized infants, who having been understimulated, waste away and die, or have problems later.two tenets of self1. rules for processing info 2. product of those ruleswhy do more women seek therapyResearch has shown that "more women present themselves for therapy because of the passive, dependent roles traditionally assigned to them."crisis interventionDeals with rendering therapeutic assistance to an individual or group immediately during a period of crisis; for example, dealing with acute stress to prevent it from reaching PTSD.abnormal psychologythe scientific study of troublesome feelings, thoughts, and behaviors associated with mental disorderspersonalitya unique and enduring pattern of inner experience and outward behavior. The uniquely expressed characteristics influence our behaviors, emotions, thoughts, and interactionspersonality disordera very rigid pattern of inner experience and outward behavior that impairs an individual's sense of self, emotional experiences, goals, capacity for empathy, and/or capacity for intimacyHow are mental disorders classified? - The DSM-5 clusters mental disorders in two ways: by internalizing and by externalizing factors:Internalizing - "include disorders with prominent anxiety, depressive, cognitive, and somatic symptoms" (think cognitive) Externalizing - "include disorders with prominent impulsive, disruptive conduct, antisocial, and substance use symptoms (addictions)" (think behavioral)ptsd treatmentin vivo exposure- make a list of fears, rank them in hierarchy, and work with therapist to get exposed until level of anxiety drops and you can conquer hardest level cognitive restructuring- write down how you reacted to trauma and work with therapist to understand why you reacted that way and reinterpret another way1According to the text, how long does it typically take for people to recover from posttraumatic stress disorder? What percent of people continue to experience symptoms even after receiving treatment for many years?According to a survey mentioned in the text, posttraumatic stress symptoms last an average of 3 years with treatment and about 5.5 years without treatment. In any given year 3.5% of the US population have acute or posttraumatic stress disorder, and 7-9 % of people have these disorders for their lifetime.agoraphobiaanxiety disorder characterized by marked fear and avoidance of being alone in a place from which escape might be difficult or embarrassinginteroceptive exposure exercisesPurposely experiencing feared physical sensations until they are no longer frightening (e.g. dizziness like a panic attack), exposure to stimuli, getting up and moving around, breathing control muscle relaxationconflict approach-approachIn the first of these, approach-approach, the individual is faced with the necessity of making a choice between two (or more) desirable goals. Since both goals are desirable, this is the least stressful situation. "Shall I fly or take a boat to Europe?" might be easily resolved if both means of travel are seen as pleasurable. Such situations produce a state of unstable equilibrium. As soon as one goal is approached, its desirability increases and completely dominates, thereby making the choice easy. The choice becomes easier the closer one moves toward either goal. The approach-approach conflict situation: an unstable equilibrium A step toward either goal is sufficient to resolve the conflict by making that goal seem more attractive than the other.conflict approach-avoidanceThe third conflict pattern is approach-avoidance. In this situation, the individual is both attracted and repelled by the same goal. The same goal has qualities that make the individual want to approach it and other qualities that make him want to avoid it. The timid man who wishes to propose to his girl friend fears rejection (the quality he wishes to avoid) and hopes for acceptance (the quality he wishes to approach). Hence he is in conflict about a single goal. If you are tempted to eat a certain food but know from experience that it gives you indigestion, you experience an approach- avoidance conflict. Approach-avoidance, like the avoidance-avoidance conflict situation, produces stable equilibrium. The approach-avoidance conflict situation is a stable equilibrium. As the individual nears the goal , the strength of avoidance increases more rapidly than that of approach, pushing him from the goal ; at this point the strength of approach is higher than the avoidance tendency. In this manner the person is brought back to the original point of equilibriumdouble approach avoidanceIn real life, the individual frequently is faced with having to choose between two (or more) goals, each of which has both attracting and repelling aspects. Since the tendency is to approach and avoid each of the goals, this pattern is called double approach-avoidance. Choosing a house in the country means fresh air, room to live, peace and quiet. It also means many hours of commuting to work in heavy traffic and long distances from city amenities and cultural events. Choosing to live in the city will likewise present both the problems and the advantages of city life. This is a common example of the double approach-avoidance situation.double avoidanceThis conflict involves two goals with negative valence. At times the individual is forced to choose one among two negative goals. In such conflicts, both are unwanted goals, but he cannot keep quiet without opting also. For example, a woman must work at a job which she dislikes very much or else she has to remain unemployed. Here the individual is caught between two repelling threats, fears or situations. When she cannot choose either of them she may try to escape from the field itself. But the consequences of the escape may also be harmful. For example, a person who cannot convince the mother or the wife may resort to Alcohol consumption which is otherwise dangerous or some people may even commit suicide. Such type of conflict is diagrammatically represented in Figure 4.4. In the event of such conflicts when there is no way to escape- some people may find a way to reduce their tension by developing 'amnesia' or defence mechanisms like regression or fantasy.self-defeating personality disordera rejected DSM diagnosis that blames the client for being vulnerable to abuse by otherssadistic personality disordera repeat pattern of cruel and demeaning behavior. Prone to engage in violent attacks, including homicide motivated by sexual sadism- not in the DSM anymoreMajor issues raised with the DSMclinicians are subjective and can be influenced by other factors; disorders are categorical, either you have or don't have; people with different symptoms might qualify for same disease because you only need a few criteria to qualify; duration criteria is arbitrary in that the minimum amount of time that you qualify for diagnosis is random; unspecified and other specified is not as broad as Not otherwise specified; social factors de-emphasized; diagnostic inflation on the rise for reimbursement purposes; comorbidity is common due to less stringent criteria; unscientific and lacks rigor usually to meet some publication deadlineAdvantages of DSM5- enhances verbal communication by using verbal shorthand -standardization in rules and criteria -able to find a diagnosis and can guide client to proper treatmentDisadvantages of DSM5-describes rather than explains, labels a person and may create self-fulfilling prophecy and may stigmatize a person, over diagnose disorders that might be normal behaviors, only uses data from American researchers, only individual behavior and not group behavior, clinicians can be distorted by age, race, sex etc.major aspects of mental disorderclinically significant and causes dysfunction, not defined solely by deviance, prolonged distress, dangerous to yourself and others, and socially unexpectable response to eventcategory vs disorder vs symptomscategories are anxiety, depression, personality disorders vs disorders (a group of emotional (feelings), cognitive (thinking), or behavioral symptoms that cause distress or significant problems (i.e. Phobia, Antisocial Personality, etc.) and that come under categories. there is also symptoms trichotillomania and ADHD which come under categories and disorders.Are mental disorders universal to all cultures? There are two views:• "Cultural Universality - some mental disorders are similar in origin, process and manifestation and exist across cultures. Ex: depression • Cultural Relativity - culture affects the expression and determination of mental disorders, and each culture defines what is normal and what is abnormal. Ex: acting-out."mixed suicide noteNeutneutral suicide note