How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

28 terms

Biology Ch 2

Chapter 2 of Biology Today and Tomorrow for Biology 114 at Heartland Community College
STUDY
PLAY
Isotope
Form of an element that differs in the number of neutrons in the nucleus
Ion
Atom that carries a charge because it has an unequal number of protons and electrons
Covalent Bond
Chemical bond in which the two atoms share a pair of electrons
Ionic Bond
Chemical bond in which atoms of opposite charge are attracted to each other
Hydrogen Bond
Attraction between a covalently bonded hydrogen atom and another atom in a separate covalent bond
Hydrophilic
Substance that easily dissolves in water
Hydrophobic
Substance that resits dissolving in water
Carbohydrate
Molecule that consists primarily of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio
Cellulose
Tough, insoluble carbohydrate that is the major structural material in plants
Enzyme
Organic molecule that speeds up a reaction without being changed by it
Fat
Lipid that consists of a glycerol molecule with one, two, or three fatty acid tails
Fatty Acid
Organic compound that consists of a chain of carbon atoms with an acidic carboxyl group at one end
Lipid Bilayer
Double layer of lipids arranged tail-to-tail that makes up cell membranes
Phospholipid
A lipid with a phosphate in its hydrophilic head, and two non polar fatty acid tails. Makes up the lipid bilayer
Saturated Fat
Fat that consists mainly of triglycerides with three saturated fatty acid tails
Steroid
Type of lipid with four carbon rings and no fatty acid tails
Triglyceride
A fat that has three fatty acid tails
Amino Acid
Small organic compound that is a subunit of proteins.
Denature
To become so altered in shape that some or all function is lost
Protein
Organic compound that consists of one or more chains of amino acids
ATP
What cells use for energy, is made in mitochondria
Polarity of Water
Slightly negative at the oxygen end, slightly positive at the two hydrogen ends
Special Properties of Water
1. Sticky 2. Surrounds and dissolves molecules 3. Temperature stable, hard to make jiggle 4. Ice floats
Monosaccharide
Glucose, fructose and others
Disaccharides
Sucrose or table sugar
Polysaccharides
Starch, glycogen, and cellulose
Starch
Polysaccharide that plants use to store fuel
Glycogen
Polysaccharide that animals use to store fuel