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36 terms

Myer's Psychology for AP (Unit 8A: Motivation)

Myer's Psychology for AP (Unit 8A: Motivation)
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motivation
a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior
instinct
a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned
drive reduction theory
the idea that a physiological need creates an arousal tension state that motivates an organism to satisfy the need
homeostatis
a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant interval state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose around a particular level
incentive
a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behaviors
hierarchy of needs
Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher level safety needs an then psychological needs become active
transpersonal
when people strive for meaning, purpose and communion that is beyond self
glucose
the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. When it is low, we feel hungry
lateral hypothalamus
when food is deprived, blood sugar levels wane causing orexin to be sent out in the system
ventromedial hypothalamus
depresses hunger. stimulate it, the body won't eat. destroy it, food will process faster making you fat
insulin
secreted by pancreas; controls blood glucose
leptin
secreted fat cells; when abundant, causes brain to increase metabolism and decrease hunger
orexin
hunger triggering hormone secreted by hypothalamus
ghrelin
secreted by stomach; sends "I'm hungry" to brain
obestatin
secreted by stomach; tells brain "I'm full"
PYY
digestive tract hormone; tells brain "I'm not hungry"
set point
the point at which an individual's "weight thermostat" is supposedly set. When the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore lost weight
basal metabolic rate
the body's resting rate of energy expenditure
neophobia
fear of new things
unit bias
similar mindlessness
anorexia
an eating disorder in which a person diets and becomes significantly (15% or more) underweight, yet still feeling fat continues to starve
bulimia
an eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting or excessive exercise
binge eating disorder
significant binge eating episodes, followed by distress, disgust, guilt but without compensatory purging, fasting, or excessive exercise that marks bulimia
obese
a body mass index of 30 or more
fat cells
what makes a person fat are his or her fat cells. Their count is less in fat people and are full quicker
sexual response cycle
the four states of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson; excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution
excitement
genital areas become engorged in blood; vagina expands and secretes lubricant, breasts and nipples enlarge
plateau
breathing, pulse and blood pressure rates increases. Penis becomes fully engorged and some fluid may appear at tip. Vaginal secretions continue
orgasm
female facilitates conception by positioning uterus to receive sperm. Both men and women feel same pleasure after release
resolution
body returns to unaroused state
refractory period
a resting period after orgasm, during which men cannot reach another orgasm. can last from minutes to days
estrogen
sex hormone, secreted in greater amounts by females than males and contributes to female sex characteristics. In nonhuman female mammals, levels peak during ovulation promoting sexual receptivity
testosterone
the most important of male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of male sex characteristics during puberty
sexual orientation
an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one's own sex or the other sex
erotic plasticity
while heterosexual males look for females in sexually explicit content, women look at both as equal
fraternal birth order effect
men who have order brothers are more likely to become homosexual and is 1/3 more likely for each brother